Sunday, April 30, 2017

Under: the clear blue sky’
Me in ceremonial: a blue cotton shirt’
You Miss: deep blue eyes’

Movie: Hyderabad Blues

My Mood right now: Weekend Blues with a tangy twist weekdays.

No. Nope. No flue. Don't bring flu-kit.

Thank you. So, are we thru?

Tryst with destiny? or rendezvous?

All auto fare paid. ya. Okay. Thank U.

Yes first U Turn. Then stop. No gate. No crash..ash no..then ask for directions.
No google maps. No connectivity what dot? ya ya come on no not dot cabs. auto inclusive of 4 only no tax fare no affair domestic abuse no refuse to pay more rupee 1 than meter if it's there ya ya brb sorry old no hold hold on the line no hound

no tom cruise top gun no no cruize usb stick no missile no no crusier land no no cruise ya ya

Kala paani to Kish Island.

La Isla Bontio.
This is where I love to be.

Traffic jam..what flavor? no no no dont bring handy cam..

Not coming saying...dunno what to do...maybe telling mentor. oh my god first possibilty of date and this happening
very face becoming blue or not seeing where mirror mirror tell tell blue or not blue no color psychology no greek roman mythology no n

Ross Jefferies' Role Model: Fardeen Khan.

The charmer who charmed the snake charmer's talismanic charm: Rishi Kapoor.

Saturday, April 29, 2017

taqdeerow ki kashmakash hai
jaisi mein hu sahil pe
aur har simd har taraf tayz tayraar sarkash lehar
woh doob rahi hai dol ke mayri kashti
yeh bas ek patwar le mein khada hi reth pe

khauff na mujh ko yu dila
aise na yu sar buland kar
yeh dekh mishk
yeh saari himqat ek aasu hi boondh mein thami hai

chattow mein naher kya thi
zidd bhi thi aur thodi si ziyadati
yaha ban zayega raygistao ka ghar
unka tha bas yaad aaya woh reth ka mahal
mujeh bas yu ettaya-faakhan unhe tokna

yaad rahi -- es dafa har guztakhi mwaaf hui
bas yuhi usi chilman par koi
kuch adhura sa kuch likha thak
mujeh tow kuch yaad nahi
kya kuch shararat aap kay bhi saath hui

Ek Na Ek Din Ye Kahani Banegi

Hey you cursing you said no expletives profanity vanity
No Indian National Language
Observing Day today huh
Nope. Then? Why all Indians are so perplexing confusing
Tell me as if this is the moment of confession -- who's that guy?
What? I'm not into Madonna Or Miss Trauma -- Will you please stop calling me that huh?
By the way -- what's this Indian Lullaby?
Yep. You want to tell you this with true haste -- exact case?
Okay. Try.
Any Telephone Booth Nearby?
Stop it. Mister Sherlock Holmes!
Okay. Mrs. Watson. Is he really dead? Or a new mystery case?
This is a song.
Oh, I thought your National Anthem -- duh!
Yep. True.
There's a Princess.
Like me huh?
Princess. I said.
Excuse Moi Mister Rude
Forget it...why all Indian girls are going round the trees.
FBI Freeze.
Stop kidding. Tell me. I wanna know.
They just never grew up.
Meaning. Medical disorder?
Who? Me becoming Father? Oh My God.
Why? Where draught?
You want water Mister?
What? Magician? No. No. Not Hypnotize my son.
See you always assume, it's a girl.
Over the rainbow?
Maybe. Think something more French. Okay. Get over it.
Let her choose a name.
You think so?
Yep. Why not?
What do we call her meanwhile?
No way.
You'd mean she's be a Traffic Stopper. We already have an awful lot of trouble.
Oh that's not me -- it's your laughing house mirror.
So that story is fake.
You want some PineApple Cake?
We'd call her Latin.
Are you real freak.
Hmm. Latin. Who loves to learn Greek. Enigmatic eyes of her Mother. And, father's violent streak!
Go away, Moron.
You happy?
Yep. I'm an Indian.
You hate French?
Absolutely. No Mercy.
Take it easy.
I'm right now very busy.
Stick with rhyme.
You pinged her again!
Nope. She paged back.
Hey. It's me only. Different IDs.
Damn you.
Anger in solitude.
They think I married a fool.
Oh, French have become so wise eh? Oh My God.
Not funny. You're Mister Misfit.
Oh yep -- hey that dummy -- is so slimfit.
Whatever.. I don't care.
So what you waiting for me? Give me the fare.
Are you really having an affair?
Liar. See.
It's lawyer.
Ya. ya. Whatever.
Sign? Nope Thumb Impression Mister First and Last Bad Impression/
Why such depression?
Two birds in hand is better than none in the rest.
I'll cut your hands with this kitchen knife.
Butter knife. Give me some utterly butterly french fries.
Oh fries--I got scared.
Yep. Yep. No haste.
They call you Mister Jinx.
This village is doomed since you vroomed in here.
Who? I'm Bridgegroom. Broomstick Mystic.
Lipstick? You said? You like gloss. How you know this? Are you really gay?
I'll give you her.
A sidekick. A buddy. A comrade.
An avand garde sibling -- a sindbad -- of chaste rage.
Whatever. Hotdogs for you. Come.

na they kahfile na bichadhne ka darr
na tha sehra na sihr
manzil ki talaash thi
dushman mustaid thay
mayray khadm bhi tayz thay
us taraf padhi nazar
tow bas ek reth ka sailaab tha
zarra zarra faulaad tha
shuio ka jaise huzuum tha
sase jaise sakht barood tha
tha akela yeh khaoff bhi tha
kahi yeh sam na saath na le le
yeh dekho ho gaye mayre housle past
jung shuri hui na thi ki usne kaha shikist
es sharmandagi par mein ho gaya aajiz
woh gadh gaye teri nazar
jis mein tha farkh hi fakhr
ek shoui jo bas yu padi
dekh sow gayi teri saari roshni
mujh se tow aakh mila le
falak ko dekhne ki baat na kar
palak jhapakne se pahli hi jam gaye
yeh kya nazar ka junoon tha
abhi the -- ab yeh pooch rahe hai -- yeh kaun tha?

Ugly duckling quacks
Subdued words but fire cracker like loud noise
Can't figure out what she sings
But this girl is real awesome like how mimosa-shrinks

Ella Elle L'a
Hey why do you say this the same thing
Again and again -- don't you get bored
At least give a Tourist book
Where to find that kind of fun

Tell me Miss Ali-Zee -- No wonder you come on TV
Next time -- put a tele prompter-like thing
For someone like me -- who wants to know
What's this noise all about
What's wrong -- O Bandit with a stun gun?

Bye. Why. Nope. This Indian Walking Beauty Pageant says
Fasten your seat belt.
You're drop-dead gorgeous.
Nope. Not leaving you in peril.
I'm coming with Pearl choker.

This guy is my friend
No. Not a joker. It's his vocation.
Don't get terrified.
He's not Mister Suicide.

He just wants to show you
Who's that chap my friend punched
I want to finish him
Otherwise, my boyfriend
No wait a minute
Your wannabe Boyfriend
Is coming with Pearl Harbor Squandran.

Want Indian Army?
He's Mister Solo
At least -- two Bazookas -- a rifle and a sidearm
This has always been his routine
Even during Peacetime.

What Brigade?

Paranoi of dungeons and real cruel tyrants
I'm an Indian with Prince of Persia-like Vendetta and Vengenace
She finds me amusing -- Like a funny carticature of some UFO and an alien
Yep. It's twelve -- tea but no brunch
Would you meet me again -- or should I take a Uturn?

Nope. No. Money Crunch.
It's this -- they speak real French
This girl insisted -- Not passport but ATM
Nope. No. Yep. Okay. Cabbie took me to some place like0Turkey.

Nope. No. Not in Subway. Turkey Solutions. Not Turkey
Yep. Yep. Left. Not you. Asking this guy to take a turn.
Yep. Yes. It's your turn -- to say the thing -- why you spun
Yep. Stories of Fairies-- That find a Dervish with wands of sun

Hey, wait -- this this pony-tailed girl -- in blue dungrees
Asking me -- You real or crazy fun
What's French to say Yes -- Yes Yes Right Turn
Hang up. But I didn't call. It's crossed-line .... Yes yes stop.

This Persian Princess tells me that
I'm Tai Chi with Steavan Seagal's punch
He? I don't know -- Maybe an American
Looks like a Red Indian -- Always in Tokyo
Dunno. For work. Or for fun.

So, you still there eh?
Nope. Here this sign says
Don't talk on the Phone
While you're on the run

Girls. I don't know. I love real fun.
Nope. No. Not gay. Yep. Yep. That guy I punched is okay.
It's you -- otherwise -- I mostly -- usually don't fight.
Nope. I never killed. Maimed. Nope. Nope. But for a dame like you.
Maybe. You make me so unpredicitbale. Other they call be O so you're Mister suitable.
Yep. For all occassional. Even during emergencies and existingencies.
Nope. No. Frequencies. Not even fish-egg delicacies.
I'm saying they say Portable like a Teddy-Bear.
It's okay if he's not so fair -- Friendly at least --
Yep. Shut up and fill. Or was it Fill and shut..

This song is my life
My words that make you shy
Quests for rainbow skies
Why do you remind me -- uncome shoelaces and clumsy ties

A caravan for a lost tribe
Like an oasis amidst mirages of vixens and sly
A castaway's heart-wrenching cries
The fate of a message-in-a-bottle -- dying to survive

Fear for myself -- this inability to cry
Her face -- like an unexpected drizzles and puddles  -- on straiwcases and thresholds
The voice that wakes you up - look here's is sunshine
That gnawing thing you feel -- even if it's not sapphire

You looking for her -- and there goes your cone of
A stranger -- a soul mate -- hey isn't she camera shy
Sudden obsessions of rhymes and corniche lights
I'm her rhymster -- do hamsters give her a fright

Why doesn't she sing my words
French is exhotic -- true or otherwise
Look there's she -- my bride -- paper boat or dragonfly
Yep. Yep. I'm your Bonzi Buddy -- Do you have a Bicycle built for two?

I think I'm writing with a wee bit of distinct suavity -- I've become perhaps more prudent in terms of -- bird's-eye view-ish sort of Blogging --
The New York Times Book Review -- The Wall Street Journal -- The Philadelphia Inquirer -- CNN, of Course -- And, Mister Larry King and all -- The Wall Street Journal -- The Atlanta -- And, I don't know it's been a while I've stumbled on Mother Jones -- And, This: Voice of America; plus Voice of America Special English -- I'm not a native speaker of the English language -- of course, absolutely not of American English -- I'm a BlackBoard Jungle DropOut who really real wished to go the Harvard -- The way Mister Richard Bach writes -- I always role-played that type of Barnstormer's way of life -- I'm forty-four-years old now -- Prof. Kev Nair, author of The English Fluency Development Encyclopedia -- helped me learn that we Asians -- particularly, Indians learn English the wrong way. He says that Language -- any language -- has two sides -- like a coin -- Here in India we learn to write first -- then we strive to speak -- that's why we aren't so fluent -- For instance: We say Extinguish your cigarette. The more conversation way of saying it is: Put out your cigarette. We didn't learn Phrasal verbs because we come from underpriviliged socio-economic backgrounds -- our parents and guardians could and still can't afford to sign up us at Elite schools. Exinguish is written English. Put out is Spoken English. Of course, an American kindergarten-er would of course -- definitely -- write with more flair and an innate aptitude to choose apt words. Like that person who writes Junie B. Jones. Unlearning is difficult. If you've learnt to pronounce a word in a certain way; and someday -- someone from a rather priviliged background and this Old School Tie Type of self-esteem -- points out to you that you're mispronouncing this -- that might happen in a private one-on-one powwow like session or during a telly talk show -- so my point is: Learning the right way of doing everything not only language and all is quite important -- Unlearning the wrong attitudes or so for instance, and re-learning the postive ones become really difficult. One more thing: I didn't find my TOEFL score sheet -- That's during the 1990s or so -- but, still they keep archives and records -- even remote backups -- TOEFL people I think are really real serious-minded chaps when it comes to speaking English -- and, all the other closely associated attributes and traits that comes with anything American -- Language or Ethics. I'm an Indian with an American-mind-set -- stranded in India. A stint of expatriate escapade in Abu Dhabi, Emirates -- of eighteen-years or so -- helped me become so dreadfully aware of my inherent frailities.

Er-Drat-Ahem--Didn't I forget Miss Bill Gates. I still pick up a really real ravishing and vogue word or two if I re-read the transcript of his speech at Harvard.

Yep. Yep. Perpetual self-delusion. I've always been so. Betty or Veronica eh?


The number of people with disabilities in India has been estimated at 70 million.[1] India is a party to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, having signed the treaty on 30 March 2007 and ratified it on 1 October 2007.[2] Unlike those in the West, most people with disabilities in India and their families are focused on survival in the context of deep poverty. India's disability rights movement, however, mainly comprises elite, middle-class activists who generally mirror the goals of the disability rights movement in Western countries.[1] Common public perceptions of disability in India are influenced by certain discourses that are generally rejected by the field of disability studies. People with disabilities are often seen as wicked or deceitful, or as unable to progress to adulthood and dependent on charity and pity for assistance.[1] This is as opposed to an emphasis on the strengths people possess despite their disabilities, and their potential for adaptation. Disability in India is affected by other social divisions such as class, gender, and caste.[1] Statistics show that women with disabilities in India are more marginalized than their male counterparts.[1] Anita Ghai argues that Indian feminism has ignored the unique conditions of women with disabilities.[

“And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their testimony forever. They indeed are the Faasiqoon (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allaah)” [al-Noor 24:4]

Praise be to Allaah. Firstly: If it is proven that a person is doing witchcraft then it is obligatory to kill him because of his evil and the harm that he is doing to people. This has been explained in the answer to question no. 13941. What is required of those whom Allaah has placed in authority over people is to rule them in accordance with that which Allaah has revealed. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And so judge (you O Muhammad) among them by what Allaah has revealed and follow not their vain desires” [al-Maa’idah 5:49] “And whosoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the Kaafiroon (i.e. disbelievers — of a lesser degree as they do not act on Allaah’s Laws)” [al-Maa'idah 5:44] “And whosoever does not judge by that which Allaah has revealed, such are the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers — of a lesser degree)” [al-Maa’idah 5:45] “And whosoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed (then) such (people) are the Faasiqoon [the rebellious i.e. disobedient (of a lesser degree)] to Allaah” [al-Maa'idah 5:47] It is not permissible at all to annul a punishment prescribed in sharee’ah. Even worse and more abhorrent than that is approving of the haraam deed and allowing the practitioner of witchcraft to work his magic in return for paying taxes. This is a betrayal of trust which the ruler will be asked about on the Day of Resurrection, the Day on which he will bite his hand in regret, but it will be to no avail. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And (remember) the Day when the Zaalim (wrongdoer, oppressor, polytheist) will bite at his hands, he will say: ‘Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger (Muhammad). 28. ‘Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so‑and‑so as a Khaleel (an intimate friend)! 29. “He indeed led me astray from the Reminder (this Qur’aan) after it had come to me. And Shaytaan (Satan) is to man ever a deserter in the hour of need.’” [al-Furqaan 25:27-29] Secondly: If the ruler does not do what is required of him of carrying out punishments prescribed in sharee’ah, then no one of the Muslim masses has the right to do that, because punishments first require proof that this person deserves this punishment, then they require the authority to carry them out. If the door is opened for people to carry out the shar’i punishments, chaos will reign in society and no one’s life or wealth will be safe. The scholars of the Standing Committee said: The one whose job it is to establish proof of witchcraft and carry out those punishments is the ruler who is in charge of the Muslims’ affairs, so as to ward off evil and to close the door to chaos. Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (1/552). In the answer to question no. 13941 we have quoted the words of Shaykh Sulaymaan al-‘Alwaan: Once it is proven that a person is guilty of practicing magic, then he must be killed. This was proven from a group of the Sahaabah, but it is not for individuals to carry out this hadd punishment without the command of the ruler or his deputy, because carrying out the hadd punishments without the authority of the ruler may lead to mischief, and destroy any sense of security in the society, and undermine the position of the ruler. End quote. We have mentioned the conditions of the ruler in carrying out hadd punishments in the answer to question no. 8980, where we mentioned that there is scholarly consensus on this point. You have to warn the people against this practitioner of witchcraft and against going to him, and explain that this action may lead a person to kufr and going beyond the pale of Islam. And Allaah knows best. Islam Q&A

World Famous Aghori Baba Ji

Beggary is an age old social phenomenon in India. In the medieval and earlier times begging was considered to be an acceptable occupation which was embraced within the traditional social structure.[4] This system of begging and alms-giving to mendicants and the poor is still widely practiced in India with over 400,000 beggars in 2015.[5] In contemporary India, beggars are often stigmatized as undeserving. People often believe that beggars are not destitute and instead call them professional beggars.[6] There is a wide perception of begging scams.[7] This view is refuted by grass root research organizations such as Aashray Adhikar Abhiyan, which claim that beggars and other homeless are overwhelmingly destitute and vulnerable. Their studies indicate that 99 percent men and 97 percent women resort to beggary due to abject poverty, distress migration from rural villages and the unavailability of employment.[8]

A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy without warrant, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors. Conspiracy theories often produce hypotheses that contradict the prevailing understanding of history or simple facts. The term is a derogatory one.[3] According to the political scientist Michael Barkun, conspiracy theories rely on the view that the universe is governed by design, and embody three principles: nothing happens by accident, nothing is as it seems, and everything is connected.[1]:3–4 Another common feature is that conspiracy theories evolve to incorporate whatever evidence exists against them, so that they become, as Barkun writes, a closed system that is unfalsifiable, and therefore "a matter of faith rather than proof".

arrogance: an attitude of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or in presumptuous claims or assumptions

Friday, April 28, 2017

A disbeliever is a person who victimizes you in every conceivable way but accuses you of victimizing him, instead. And, than he'd coerce you into giving him blood money for wrongs you never did. There're a few distinct signs -- you'd look out for: He's no remorse. He isn't capable of feeling guilty in the first place. He'd stopp down to any conceivable level. He's an inveterate liar. Deceit is his weapon of choice. Brute force. He's literally a bully. That's an understatment. For instance: You borrowed 100 rupees from me; and, I didn't even ask you to pay it back out of courtesy or whatever -- but you beat me up and stalk me everywhere and tell everyone that I took 1000 rupees from you. And, you give me inexplicable distress and shame till I shell out 1000 rupees. That's a disbeliever. He's nothing to do with rightesnous -- He's nothing to do with any religion -- He's promiscuius in terms of religion, politial affinity or infinitum. His allies -- complice are bullies; or rag-tag bunch of political rogues or corrrupt law inforcement officials et cetra -- there's a nexus -- a mutually beneficial relationship of predators -- They terrorize us -- our fear of 'em -- is their strength -- Like blood brothers . . . . We need to stand shoulder to shoulder with each other in absolute solidarity -- to thwart this diabolic members of satanic cults. Science is based on doubt. Faith is based on belief in the unseen. Divine law. Sorcercers. Not skeptics. Saints. Not Scientists. Sincere faith and trust in God. Piety. Beseeching God for help. In secret. With humility. With fear. With hope. Unquestionably, the help is near. God's Decree. God's Law. God's Will. You cannot will unless it be that Allaah wills -- The Lord of Mankind, Jinn and All That Exists.

So I swear by the retreating stars -

By the star when it descends

Praise be to Allaah. The well-known difference between a Prophet and a Messenger is that a Messenger is one to whom a law is revealed and he is commanded to convey it, whilst a Prophet is one to whom a law is revealed but he is not commanded to convey it. But this distinction is not free of problems, because a Prophet is also commanded to call people, convey the Message and judge among the people. Hence Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: The correct view is that the Messenger is one who is sent to a disbelieving people, and the Prophet is one who is sent to a believing people with the sharee’ah of the Messenger who came before him, to teach them and judge between them, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, We did send down the Tawraat (Torah) [to Moosa (Moses)], therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allaah’s Will, judged for the Jews” [al-Maa’idah 5:44] So the Prophets of the Children of Israel judged by the Tawraat which Allaah had revealed to Moosa. With regard to the aayah, “but he is the Messenger of Allaah and the last (end) of the Prophets” [al-Ahzaab 33:40] and why it did not say the last of the Messengers – the end of the Message does not mean the end of Prophethood, but the end of Prophethood does mean the end of the Message. Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There will be no Prophet after me,” and he did not say, there will be no Messenger after me. Thus we know that there is no Messenger and no Prophet after him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him); he was the last of the Prophets and of the Messengers, (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Barraak

To End a Civil War: Norway's Peace Engagement with Sri Lanka

Between 1983 and 2009 Sri Lanka was host to a bitter civil war fought between the Government and the LTTE (Tamil Tigers), which sought the creation of an independent Tamil state. The war ended violently in May 2009 with the crushing defeat of the Tamil Tigers by the Sri Lanka Army amid the deaths of tens of thousands of civilians. But prior to this grim finale, for there had been hope for a peaceful end to the conflict. Beginning with a ceasefire agreement in early 2002, for almost five years a series of peace talks between the two sides, facilitated by Norway, took place in locations ranging from Thailand and Japan to Norway, Germany and Switzerland.

To End a Civil War tells the story of trying to bring peace to Sri Lanka. In particular it tells the story of how a faraway European nation came to play a central role in efforts to end the long-running South Asian conflict, and what its small, dedicated team of mediators did in their untiring efforts to reach the ultimately elusive goal of a negotiated peace. In doing so the book fills a critical gap in understanding the Sri Lankan conflict. But it also illuminates in detail a much wider problem: the intense fragility that surrounds peace processes and the extraordinary lengths to which their proponents often stretch in order to secure their progress.

Erik Solheim (former Norwegian Development Minister and Special Envoy to Sri Lanka) and Vidar Helgesen (former Norwegian Deputy Foreign Minister, now Minister for Europe) are two of the key contributors to the book, authored by Mark Salter.


Chair: Henrik Syse, Senior researcher, PRIO
Erik Solheim (former Norwegian Development Minister and Special Envoy to Sri Lanka)
Mark Salter (Author)
Anne Julie Semb, Professor, University of Oslo
Iselin Frydenlund, Senior researcher, PRIO

Erik Solheim was the main negotiator in the peace process in Sri Lanka from 200-2005. As minister he also contributed to peace processes in Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and Burundi. In January 2013, Mr. Solheim took the lead of the main body of world donors the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC).  He is also serving as United Nations Environment Programme’s special envoy for environment, conflict and disaster. From 2007 to 2012 he held the combined portfolio of Norway’s Minister of the Environment and International Development; he also served as Minister of International Development from 2005 to 2007.

Mark Salter  is a teacher and BBC journalist by training. Over the last 25 years he has worked in a wide range of professional settings including international NGOs, research institutes and intergovernmental organizations. His work has focused on issues of democracy, conflict, reconciliation and diversity management.

Anne Julie Semb is professor at the Department of political science, University of Oslo. Semb's academic interests include conflicts between states and groups, state sovereignty, citizenship, minority issues, and human rights.

Iselin Frydenlund is a senior researcher at PRIO and Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, University of Oslo. Her research interests include the role of religion in war and peace, suicide terrorism, interreligious dialogue in its various forms, and freedom of religion or belief. She has written extensively on the role of Buddhism in the Sri Lankan civil war.

Henrik Syse is a senior researcher at PRIO. He works on the ethics of war, historically and systematically, as well as on the relationship between religion and the use of armed force.

The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on 23 July 1983, there was an intermittent insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), which fought to create an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island. After a 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end.[1] For over 25 years, the war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country, with an initial estimated 80,000–100,000 people killed during its course.[14] In 2013, the UN panel estimated additional deaths during the last phase of the war: "Around 40,000 died while other independent reports estimated the number of civilians dead to exceed 100,000."[18] During the early part of the conflict, the Sri Lankan forces attempted to retake the areas captured by the LTTE. The tactics employed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against the actions of Government forces resulted in their listing as a terrorist organisation in 32 countries, including the United States, India, Canada and the member nations of the European Union.[19] The Sri Lankan government forces have also been accused of human rights abuses, systematic impunity for serious human rights violations, lack of respect for habeas corpus in arbitrary detentions, and forced disappearances.[20] After two decades of fighting and four failed tries at peace talks, including the unsuccessful deployment of the Indian Army, the Indian Peace Keeping Force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002.[21] However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE out of the entire Eastern province of the island. The LTTE then declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood".[22][23] In 2007, the government shifted its offensive to the north of the country, and formally announced its withdrawal from the ceasefire agreement on 2 January 2008, alleging that the LTTE violated the agreement over 10,000 times.[24] Since then, aided by the destruction of a number of large arms smuggling vessels that belonged to the LTTE,[25] and an international crackdown on the funding for the Tamil Tigers, the government took control of the entire area previously controlled by the Tamil Tigers, including their de facto capital Kilinochchi, main military base Mullaitivu and the entire A9 highway,[26] leading the LTTE to finally admit defeat on 17 May 2009.[27] Following the end of the war, the Sri Lankan government claimed Sri Lanka as the first country in the modern world to eradicate terrorism on its own soil.[28] Following the LTTE's defeat, pro-LTTE Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[29][30] In May 2010, Mahinda Rajapaksa, the president of Sri Lanka, appointed the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) to assess the conflict between the time of the ceasefire agreement in 2002 and the defeat of the LTTE in 2009.

A distress signal or distress call is an internationally recognized means for obtaining help. Distress signals are communicated by transmitting radio signals, displaying a visually observable item or illumination, or making a sound audible from a distance. A distress signal indicates that a person or group of people, ship, aircraft, or other vehicle is threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.[1]:PCG D−3 Use of distress signals in other circumstances may be against local or international law. An urgency signal is available to request assistance in less critical situations. In order for distress signalling to be the most effective, two parameters must be communicated: Alert or notification of a distress in progress Position or location (or localization or pinpointing) of the party in distress. For example, a single aerial flare alerts observers to the existence of a vessel in distress somewhere in the general direction of the flare sighting on the horizon but extinguishes within one minute or less. A hand-held flare burns for three minutes and can be used to localize or pinpoint more precisely the exact location or position of the party in trouble. An EPIRB both notifies or alerts authorities and at the same time provides position indication information.

The Colt family incest case, dubbed by media as the Colt incest clan, is an Australian family discovered in 2013 to have been engaging in four generations of incest beginning with "Tim and June Colt," a brother and sister who emigrated from New Zealand in the 1970s.[1] The family grew to nearly 40 members ranging from grandparents to mothers, fathers, sons, daughters, aunts, uncles, nephews, brothers and sisters all engaging in various forms of incest. Many of the children suffered from deformities and medical problems. The case has been described by lead investigator Peter Yeomans as, "like nothing I’ve ever seen," and was so shocking that in a rare move the Australian family court allowed full details to be made public, albeit with all names changed to pseudonyms for the children's protection, including the family name of "Colt."[2][3] They all lived in a farm near Boorowa, New South Wales according to NSW law case notes.

On July 2, 1996, an enormous alien mothership that has one fourth the mass of the Moon enters orbit around Earth, deploying 36 smaller spacecraft, each 15 miles (24 km) wide, that take positions over some of Earth's major cities and military bases. David Levinson, an MIT-trained satellite technician, decodes a signal embedded in the global satellite transmissions that he determines is a timer counting down to a coordinated attack. With the help of his former wife, White House Communications Director Constance Spano, Levinson, and his father Julius, gain access to the Oval Office and warn President Thomas J. Whitmore that the aliens are hostile. Whitmore orders large-scale evacuations of New York City, Los Angeles, and Washington D.C., but it is too late; the timer reaches zero and the ships activate devastating directed-energy weapons, killing millions. Whitmore, the Levinsons, and a few others narrowly escape aboard Air Force One as the capital is destroyed, along with other locations over which the ships are positioned. On July 3, international leaders begin ordering individual counterattacks. Their aviation forces attack destroyer ships positioned above the ruins of the cities, but they are protected by force fields. Each destroyer launches a swarm of attack fighters, each with its own shield as well, which wipe out the human fighter squadrons. Captain Steven Hiller, a pilot with the USMC squadron VMFA-314 based out of Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, survives by luring his attacker to the enclosed spaces of the Grand Canyon and sacrificing his plane, forcing the alien to crash-land. He subdues the injured alien pilot and flags down a convoy of refugees, hitching a ride with former combat pilot Russell Casse. They transport the unconscious alien to nearby Area 51 where Whitmore's group has landed. Through Secretary of Defense Albert Nimzicki, they learn that a faction of the government has been involved in a UFO conspiracy since 1947, when one of the invaders' attack fighters crashed in Roswell. Area 51 houses the refurbished alien fighter and three alien corpses recovered from the crash. When eccentric scientist Brackish Okun examines the alien captured by Hiller, it regains consciousness and attacks. It telepathically invades Okun's mind and uses his vocal cords to communicate with Whitmore before launching a psychic attack against him. Whitmore sees visions of the alien's plans: their entire civilization travels from planet to planet, exterminating all indigenous life and harvesting the planet of all natural resources. After Secret Service agents and military personnel kill the alien, Whitmore reluctantly authorizes a nuclear attack; a B-2 Spirit fires a nuclear cruise missile at an alien destroyer positioned above Houston, but the ship remains intact. On July 4, Levinson demonstrates that the key to defeating the aliens lies in deactivating their force fields, and devises a way to do so by uploading a computer virus into the mothership. He proposes using the refurbished alien fighter to implement the plan, which Hiller volunteers to pilot. The two are able to implant the virus and deploy a nuclear weapon on board the mothership. With military pilots in short supply, Whitmore enlists the help of volunteers with flight experience, including Casse, and leads an attack on a destroyer ship bearing down on Area 51. With the alien's shields deactivated, the fighters are able to inflict damage but their supply of missiles is quickly exhausted. As the destroyer prepares to fire on the base, the last missile, equipped on Casse's plane, jams, and Casse decides to sacrifice his own life. He flies his plane kamikaze-style into the directed-energy weapon port, which results in an explosion that destroys the ship. Human resistance forces around the world successfully destroy the other craft using this vulnerability. As humankind is rejoicing in victory, Hiller and Levinson return to Area 51 unharmed and reunite with their families. They and military officers nearby accompany Whitmore and his daughter in watching the wreckage from the mothership burn up, resembling a fireworks display as it enters Earth's atmosphere.

Satanic ritual abuse (SRA, sometimes known as ritual abuse, ritualistic abuse, organised abuse, sadistic ritual abuse, and other variants) was the subject of a moral panic that originated in the United States in the 1980s, spreading throughout the country and eventually to many parts of the world by the late 1990s. Allegations of SRA involved reports of physical and sexual abuse of people in the context of occult or Satanic rituals. In its most extreme form, SRA involves a worldwide organisation including the wealthy and powerful of the world elite in which children are abducted or bred for sacrifices, pornography and prostitution. Nearly every aspect of SRA was controversial, including its definition, the source of the allegations and proof thereof, testimonials of alleged victims, and court cases involving the allegations and criminal investigations. The panic affected lawyers', therapists', and social workers' handling of allegations of child sexual abuse. Allegations initially brought together widely dissimilar groups, including religious fundamentalists, police investigators, child advocates, therapists, and clients in psychotherapy. The movement gradually secularized, dropping or deprecating the "satanic" aspects of the allegations in favor of names that were less overtly religious such as "sadistic" or simply "ritual abuse" and becoming more associated with dissociative identity disorder and anti-government conspiracy theories. Initial publicity came via the book Michelle Remembers (1980), and was sustained and popularized throughout the decade by the McMartin preschool trial. Testimonials, symptom lists, rumors, and techniques to investigate or uncover memories of SRA were disseminated through professional, popular, and religious conferences, as well as through the attention of talk shows, sustaining and further spreading the moral panic throughout the United States and beyond. In some cases, allegations resulted in criminal trials with varying results; after seven years in court, the McMartin trial resulted in no convictions for any of the accused, while other cases resulted in lengthy sentences, some of which were later reversed. Scholarly interest in the topic slowly built, eventually resulting in the conclusion that the phenomenon was a moral panic, with little or no validity. Official investigations produced no evidence of widespread conspiracies or of the slaughter of thousands; only a small number of verified crimes have even remote similarities to tales of SRA. In the latter half of the 1990s, interest in SRA declined and skepticism became the default position, with very few researchers giving any credence to the existence of SRA.

The first solo flight of a new pilot comprises that pilot completing a take off, and usually a short flight and safe landing, by him or herself. Flying such a flight is a milestone known as soloing. Being solo pilot of an aircraft is different from most other situations in that the pilot has not only to be able to fly and navigate the machine in a competent manner but he/she also has to be able to cope with unpredictable developments like mechanical failure, bad weather etc on his/her own and without advice from other sources (most air traffic controllers are not pilots and may not be contactable anyway).

Air combat manoeuvring (also known as ACM or dogfighting) is the tactical art of moving, turning and/or situating one's fighter aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft. Air combat manoeuvres rely on offensive and defensive basic fighter manoeuvring (BFM) to gain an advantage over an aerial opponent.

Six basic instruments in a light twin-engine airplane arranged in a "basic-T". From top left: airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, altimeter, turn coordinator, heading indicator, and vertical speed indicator

Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, airspeed and direction. They improve safety by allowing the pilot to fly the aircraft in level flight, and make turns, without a reference outside the aircraft such as the horizon. Visual flight rules (VFR) require an airspeed indicator, an altimeter, and a compass or other suitable magnetic direction indicator. Instrument flight rules (IFR) additionally require a gyroscopic pitch-bank (artificial horizon), direction (directional gyro) and rate of turn indicator, plus a slip-skid indicator, adjustable altimeter, and a clock. Flight into Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) require radio navigation instruments for precise takeoffs and landings.[1]:3-1 The term is sometimes used loosely as a synonym for cockpit instruments as a whole, in which context it can include engine instruments, navigational and communication equipment. Many modern aircraft have electronic flight instrument systems. Most regulated aircraft have these flight instruments as dictated by the US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Part 91. They are grouped according to pitot-static system, compass systems, and gyroscopic instruments

An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. Earthworms are commonly found living in soil, feeding on live and dead organic matter. An earthworm's digestive system runs through the length of its body. It conducts respiration through its skin. It has a double transport system composed of coelomic fluid that moves within the fluid-filled coelom and a simple, closed blood circulatory system. It has a central and a peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of two ganglia above the mouth, one on either side, connected to a nerve cord running back along its length to motor neurons and sensory cells in each segment. Large numbers of chemoreceptors are concentrated near its mouth. Circumferential and longitudinal muscles on the periphery of each segment enable the worm to move. Similar sets of muscles line the gut, and their actions move the digesting food toward the worm's anus.[2] Earthworms are hermaphrodites–each individual carries both male and female sex organs. They lack either an internal skeleton or exoskeleton, but maintain their structure with fluid-filled coelom chambers that function as a hydrostatic skeleton. "Earthworm" is the common name for the largest members of Oligochaeta (which is either a class or a subclass depending on the author). In classical systems, they were placed in the order Opisthopora, on the basis of the male pores opening posterior to the female pores, though the internal male segments are anterior to the female. Theoretical cladistic studies have placed them, instead, in the suborder Lumbricina of the order Haplotaxida, but this may again soon change. Folk names for the earthworm include "dew-worm", "rainworm", "night crawler", and "angleworm" (due to its use as fishing bait). Larger terrestrial earthworms are also called megadriles (which translates to "big worms"), as opposed to the microdriles ("small worms") in the semiaquatic families Tubificidae, Lumbricidae, and Enchytraeidae, among others. The megadriles are characterized by having a distinct clitellum (which is more extensive than that of microdriles) and a vascular system with true capillaries. Earthworms are far less abundant in disturbed environments and are typically active only if water is present.

Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness. Trance states may occur involuntarily and unbidden. The term trance may be associated with hypnosis, meditation, magic, flow, and prayer. It may also be related to the earlier generic term, altered states of consciousness, which is no longer used in "consciousness studies" discourse.

Sufi whirling (or Sufi turning) (Turkish: Semazen) is a form of Sama or physically active meditation which originated among Sufis, and which is still practiced by the Sufi Dervishes of the Mevlevi order and other orders such as the Rifa'i-Marufi. It is a customary meditation practice performed within the Sema, or worship ceremony, through which dervishes (also called semazens, from Persian سماعزن) aim to reach the source of all perfection, or kemal. This is sought through abandoning one's nafs, egos or personal desires, by listening to the music, focusing on God, and spinning one's body in repetitive circles, which has been seen as a symbolic imitation of planets in the Solar System orbiting the sun.[1] The Mevlevi practice gave rise to an Egyptian form, tanoura, distinguished by the use of a multicolored skirt. This has also developed into a performance dance by non-Sufis, including dancers outside the Islamic world.

The whirling dance or Sufi whirling that is proverbially associated with dervishes is best known in the West by the practices (performances) of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, and is part of a formal ceremony known as the Sama. It is, however, also practiced by other orders. The Sama is only one of the many Sufi ceremonies performed to try to reach religious ecstasy (majdhb, fana). The name Mevlevi comes from the Persian poet Rumi, who was a dervish himself. This practice, though not intended as entertainment, has become a tourist attraction in Turkey

A dervish or darvesh[1] (from Persian: درویش‎‎, Darvīsh[2] via Turkish,[3] Somali: Daraawiish, Arabic: درويش‎‎, Darwīš) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "Tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity. Their[4] focus is on the universal values of love and service, deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. In most Sufi orders, a dervish is known to practice dhikr through physical exertions or religious practices to attain the ecstatic trance to reach God.[5] Their most common practice is Sama which is associated with Rumi.

Shamanism (/ˈʃɑːmən/ shah-men or /ˈʃeɪmən/ shay-mən) is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.[1] A shaman is a person regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who typically enters into a trance state during a ritual, and practices divination and healing.[2] The word "shaman" probably originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen, "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms" such as Negidal, Lamut, Udehe/Orochi, Nanai, Ilcha, Orok, Manchu and Ulcha, and "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning 'shaman' also derives from Proto-Tungusic" and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia.[3] The term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552. The term "shamanism" was first applied by western anthropologists as outside observers of the ancient religion of the Turks and Mongols, as well as those of the neighboring Tungusic and Samoyedic-speaking peoples. Upon observing more religious traditions across the world, some caucasian anthropologists began to also use the term in a very broad sense, to describe unrelated magico-religious practices found within the ethnic religions of other parts of Asia, Africa, Australasia and even completely unrelated parts of the Americas, as they believed these practices to be similar to one another.[4] Mircea Eliade writes, "A first definition of this complex phenomenon, and perhaps the least hazardous, will be: shamanism = 'technique of religious ecstasy'."[5] Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness. The shaman also enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements. The shaman operates primarily within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment.[5] Beliefs and practices that have been categorized this way as "shamanic" have attracted the interest of scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, including anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, religious studies scholars, philosophers, and psychologists. Hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism. In the 20th century, many westerners involved in the counter-cultural movement have created modern magico-religious practices influenced by their ideas of indigenous religions from across the world, creating what has been termed neoshamanism or the neoshamanic movement.[6] It has affected the development of many neopagan practices, as well as faced a backlash and accusations of cultural appropriation,[7] exploitation and misrepresentation when outside observers have tried to represent cultures they do not belong to.[8][9]

Latin served us servile with the help of servilis, itself from servus, the Latin word for "slave." Servus is also an ancestor of serve, service, and servitude. Synonyms of servile in English include subservient, slavish, and obsequious. Subservient implies the cringing manner of one very conscious of a subordinate position." "Slavish" suggests abject or debased servitude. "Obsequious" implies fawning or sycophantic compliance and exaggerated deference of manner. "Servile" suggests the mean or fawning behavior of a slave.

What is this world?
Published Date: 2001-04-08
Praise be to Allaah.

This world is the place of striving and the Hereafter is the place of reward or punishment, where the believers will be rewarded with Paradise and the disbelievers will be punished with Hell.

Paradise is good and none but those who were good will enter it. Allaah is Good and accepts nothing but that which is good. So the way of Allaah with His slaves is to test them with calamities and tribulations, so that the believer may be known from the kaafir and so that the truthful may be distinguished from the liar, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: ‘We believe,’ and will not be tested.

And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allaah will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars, (although Allaah knows all that before putting them to test)”

[al-‘Ankaboot 29:2-3]

Victory and success cannot be achieved except after tests which will bring the good forth from the evil and tell the believer apart from the kaafir, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allaah disclose to you the secrets of the Ghayb (Unseen)”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:179]

Among the trials with which Allaah tests His slaves in order to distinguish the believers from the disbelievers is that which He mentions in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Saabiroon (the patient).

Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.’

They are those on whom are the Salawaat (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones”

[al-Baqarah 2:155-157]

So Allaah tests His slaves, and He loves those who are patient, and gives them the glad tidings of Paradise.

Allaah tests His slaves with jihaad, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allaah tests those of you who fought (in His Cause) and (also) tests those who are As-Saabiroon (the patient)?”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:142]

Wealth and children are a trial by means of which Allaah tests His slaves, to know who will give thanks for them, and who will be distracted from Allaah by them:

“And know that your possessions and your children are but a trial and that surely, with Allaah is a mighty reward”

[al-Anfaal 8:28 – interpretation of the meaning]

Allaah tests us, sometimes with calamities and sometimes with blessings, to show who will be thankful and who will be ungrateful, and who will obey and who will disobey, then He will reward or punish them on the Day of Resurrection:

“and We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good. And to Us you will be returned”

[al-Anbiya’ 21:35 – interpretation of the meaning]

Testing is according to one’s faith; the most severely tested among mankind are the Prophets, then the next best and the next best. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When I fall ill, my pain is equivalent to the pain of two men among you.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5648).

Allaah tests His slaves with different kinds of trials.

Sometimes He tests them with calamities and tribulations to distinguish the believer from the disbeliever, the obedient from the disobedient, the grateful from the ungrateful.

Sometimes Allaah tests His slaves with calamities; when they commit sin, He punishes them with calamities so that they might come back to him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much”

[al-Shoora 42:30]

“And indeed We seized them with punishment, but they humbled not themselves to their Lord, nor did they invoke (Allaah) with submission to Him” [al-Mu’minoon 23:76]

Allaah is merciful to His slaves; He sends repeated tribulations upon the ummah so that they may return and repent to Him, and give up that which Allaah has forbidden, and so that Allaah might forgive them. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“See they not that they are put in trial once or twice every year (with different kinds of calamities, disease, famine)? Yet, they turn not in repentance, nor do they learn a lesson (from it)”

[al-Tawbah 9:126]

It is part of the mercy of Allaah that disasters befall sinners in this world, so that their souls might be purified and they might come back to Allaah before they die:

“And verily, We will make them taste of the near torment (i.e. the torment in the life of this world, i.e. disasters, calamities) prior to the supreme torment (in the Hereafter), in order that they may (repent and) return (i.e. accept Islam)”

[al-Sajdah 32:21 – interpretation of the meaning]

Sometimes Allaah tests His slaves with calamities in order to raise them in status and to expiate for their sins, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No misfortune or disease befalls a Muslim, no worry or grief or harm or distress – not even a thorn that pricks him – but Allaah will expiate for some of his sins because of that.” (Agreed upon. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5641)

From Usool al-Deen al-Islami, by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri

Praise be to Allaah. Yes, there is something which is called the qareen, which Allaah has caused to accompany every human being. This qareen pushes a person to do evil things and to disobey Allaah, with the exception of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as will be explained below. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “His companion (qareen) will say: ‘Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression, (in disbelief, oppression, and evil deeds), but he was himself in error far astray.’ Allaah will say: ‘Dispute not in front of Me, I had already in advance sent you the threat. The Sentence that comes from Me cannot be changed, and I am not unjust to the slaves’” [Qaaf 50:27-29] Ibn Katheer said: “ ‘His companion (qareen) will say’ – Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him), Mujaahid, Qutaadah and others said: this refers to the devil who is appointed to accompany him. ‘Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression’ means, he will disown that person on the Day of Judgement, and will say, ‘Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression’ meaning, I did not lead him astray. ‘but he was himself in error far astray’ means, he was misguided in himself, receptive to falsehood and resistant to the truth – as Allaah says elsewhere (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And Shaytaan (Satan) will say when the matter has been decided: “Verily, Allaah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you except that I called you, and you responded to me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor can you help me. I deny your former act in associating me (Satan) as a partner with Allaah (by obeying me in the life of the world). Verily, there is a painful torment for the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers).”’ [Ibraaheem 14:22] The phrase ‘Dispute not in front of Me’ refers to what Allaah will say to the human and his companion from among the jinn, when they dispute before Him, and the human says, ‘O Lord, this one led me astray from the Reminder after it had come to me’ and the devil will say, ‘Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression, (in disbelief, oppression, and evil deeds), but he was himself in error far astray’ – i.e., from the path of truth. Allaah will say, ‘Dispute not in front of Me’ meaning, in My presence. ‘I had already in advance sent you the threat’ means, I sent the warning on the lips of the Messengers, and I sent down the Books, so proof and evidence was established against you. ‘The Sentence that comes from Me cannot be changed’ – Mujaahid said, this means I have passed My judgement. ‘and I am not unjust to the slaves’ means, I do not punish anyone for the sin of another, and I only punish a person for his sin after proof has been established against him.” Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 4/227 It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no one among you but a companion from among the jinn has been assigned to him.” They said, “Even you, O Messenger of Allaah?’ He said, “Even me, but Allaah helped me with him and he became Muslim (or: and I am safe from him), so he only enjoins me to do that which is good.” According to another report, “… There is assigned to him a companion from among the jinn and a companion from among the angels.” Narrated by Muslim, 2814 Al-Nawawi included this in a chapter which he called: Baab Tahreesh al-Shaytaan wa Ba’thihi Saraayaahu li Fitnat il-Naas wa anna ma’a kulli insaanin Qareen (Chapter on the evil of the Shaytaan and his sending his troops to tempt the people, and the fact that there is a jinn-companion with every human being). Al-Nawawi said: “Fa aslamu (and I am safe from him) or fa aslama (and he became Muslim). These are two well known versions. One means ‘and I am safe from his evil and his temptation.’ The other means that ‘the qareen became Muslim and became a believer, so he does not tell me to do anything but good’. There was some scholarly dispute as to the form of the word. Al-Khattaabi said that the word was Fa aslamu (and I am safe from him); al-Qaadi ‘Iyaad said that it was fa aslama (and he became Muslim), which is more correct, because the hadeeth says, ‘so he only enjoins me to do that which is good’. They also disputed as to the meaning of the word fa aslama. Some said that it meant that he (the qareen) submitted and surrendered, as it was narrated elsewhere than in Saheeh Muslim, fa astaslama [he gave up and surrendered]. It was also suggested that it means that he became a Muslim and a believer. The latter is the apparent meaning. Al-Qaadi said: Note that the ummah is unanimously agreed that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was protected from the Shaytaan in physically, mentally and with regard what he said. This hadeeth contains a warning against the temptation of the qareen and his whispers and temptations. We know that he is with us so we should beware of him as much as possible. Sharh Muslim, 17/157, 158 It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If anyone of you is praying, he should not let anyone pass in front of him; if that person insists then he should fight him for there is a qareen with him.” Narrated by Muslim, 506. Al-Shawkaani said: “The phrase ‘for there is a qareen with him’—according to al-Qaamoos [an Arabic-language dictionary] the word qareen refers to a companion; the Shaytaan always accompanies man and never leaves him. This is what is referred to here.” Nayl al-Awtaar, 3/7 And Allaah knows best. Islam Q&A Create Comments WhatsApp Categories Articles & Books Introduction to Islam New Fatwas Send A Question contact us

Instruments used for embalming

The Chinchorro culture in the Atacama desert of present-day Chile and Peru are among the earliest cultures known to have performed artificial mummification as early as 5000-6000 BC.[1] Perhaps the ancient culture that had developed embalming to the greatest extent was Egypt. As early as the First Dynasty (3200 BC), specialized priests were in charge of embalming and mummification. They did so by removing organs, ridding the body of moisture, and covering the body with natron.[2] The Ancient Egyptians believed that preservation of the mummy empowered the soul after death, the latter of which would return to the preserved corpse. Other cultures known to have used embalming techniques in antiquity include the Meroites, Guanches, Peruvians, Jivaro Indians, Aztecs, Toltecs, Mayans, and Tibetan and southern Nigerian tribes.[1] The earliest known evidence of artificial preservation in Europe was found in Osorno (Spain) and are about 5000 years old human bones covered in cinnabar for preservation, but embalming remained unusual in Europe up to the time of the Roman Empire.[1] In China, artificially preserved remains have been recovered from the period of the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), the main examples being that of Xin Zhui and the Mawangdui Han tombs site. While these remains have been extraordinarily well preserved, the embalming fluids and methods used are unknown.[1] In Europe the knowledge and practice of artificial preservation had spread from these ancient cultures becoming widely spread by about 500 AD. The period of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is known as the Anatomists period of embalming and is characterized by an increased influence of scientific developments in medicine and the need of bodies for dissection purposes. Early methods used are documented by contemporary physicians such as Peter Forestus (1522–1597) and Ambroise Pare (1510-1590). The first attempts to inject the vascular system were made by Alessandro Giliani of Persiceto, who died in 1326. Various attempts and procedures have been reported by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Jacobus Berengar (1470–1550), Bartholomeo Eustachius (1520–1574), Reinier de Graaf (1641–1673), Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680), and Frederik Ruysch (1638–1731).[1]

As of 2015 there were 940 million people with some degree of vision loss.[1] 246 million had low vision and 39 million were blind.[5] The majority of people with poor vision are in the developing world and are over the age of 50 years.[5] Rates of visual impairment have decreased since the 1990s.[5] Visual impairments have considerable economic costs both directly due to the cost of treatment and indirectly due to decreased ability to work.[

Praise be to Allaah. Yes, the devils may whisper to man in Ramadaan, and the practitioners of witchcraft may practise their craft during Ramadaan, but that undoubtedly happens to a lesser extent than at times other than Ramadaan. It was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When Ramadaan begins, the gates of Paradise are opened, and the gates of Hell are closed, and the devils are chained up.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3277; Muslim, 1079. According to al-Nasaa’i: “The most evil jinn are chained up.” This does not mean that the devils have no influence at all, rather it indicates that they become weaker in Ramadaan and are not able to do what they are able to do at times other than Ramadaan. It may be interpreted as meaning that the ones who are chained up are the most evil devils, not all of them. Al-Qurtubi said: If it is said, how come we see many evil actions and sins being committed in Ramadaan, for if the devils were chained up, that would not happen? The answer is that (evil actions) are reduced on the part of those who fast meeting all the conditions of fasting and paying attention to the etiquette of fasting. Or some of the devils – namely the most evil ones – are chained up, not all of them, as previously mentioned in some reports. Or it may mean that evil actions are reduced in Ramadaan, which is something that we can see. Even though evil actions happen in Ramadaan, they are less than at other times. Even if all of the devils were to be chained up, that does not mean that no evil action would happen, because there are other causes of evil action besides the devils, such as evil souls, bad habits and the human devils. From Fath al-Baari. And Allaah knows best. Islam Q&A Create Comments

Common causes of deaf-blindness include birth trauma, optic nerve atrophy, cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy. Some people may be born with both hearing and visual impairments through birth trauma or rare causes such as CHARGE Syndrome or cortical visual impairment. Helen Keller, for example, became blind-deaf when she caught an illness called "brain fever" when she was only 19 months old. Laura Bridgman, another example, caught an illness called scarlet fever when she was only 24 months old. Not only did Bridgman lose her sight and hearing, but also lost her sense of smell and nearly all of her sense of taste. More causes are in the list below. Major Causes of Deaf-Blindness Down Syndrome Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13) Usher Syndrome Multiple Congenital Anomalies CHARGE Association Fetal alcohol syndrome Hydrocephaly Maternal drug abuse Microcephaly Prematurity Congenital Prenatal Dysfunction AIDS Herpes Rubella Syphilis Toxoplasmosis Post-natal Causes Asphyxia Encephalitis Head injury/trauma Meningitis Stroke

In the United States in 2012, there were 130 matricides (0.4 per million people) and 383 filicides (1.2 per million), or 1.4 incidents per day.[42]

Biological motherhood for humans, as in other mammals, occurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum (the "egg"). Typically a fetus develops from the viable zygote, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus until the fetus (assuming it is carried to term) is sufficiently developed to be born. In humans, gestation is often around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and gives birth. This is not always the case, however, as some babies are born prematurely, late, or in the case of stillbirth, do not survive gestation. Usually, once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process. The mother's breast milk is the source of antibodies for the infant's immune system and commonly the sole source of nutrition for the first year or more of the child's life.[3][4][5]

Praise be to Allaah. 1 – The issue of praying at graves Praying at graves is of two types: The first type is praying to the occupant of the grave. This is major shirk which puts a person beyond the pale of Islam, because prayer is an act of worship, and it is not permissible to do any act of worship to anyone other than Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Worship Allaah and join none with Him (in worship)” [al-Nisa’ 4:36] “Verily, Allaah forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills, sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allaah, has indeed strayed far away” [al-Nisa’ 4:116] The second type is praying to Allaah in the graveyard. This covers a number of issues: 1 – Praying the funeral (janaazah) prayer at the graveside, which is permissible. Example: if a person dies and you are not able to offer the funeral prayer for him in the mosque, then it is permissible for you to offer the prayer for him after he is buried. The evidence for this is that this is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did. It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that a black man or a black woman used to clean the mosque, and he (or she) died. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked about him and they said, “He died.” He said, “Why did you not tell me? Show me to his grave (or her grave).” So he went to the grave and offered the funeral prayer. (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 458; Muslim, 956). 2 – Praying the funeral prayer in the graveyard, which is permissible Example: a person dies and you are not able to offer the funeral prayer for him in the mosque, so you go to the graveyard and offer the prayer there before he is buried. Shaykh ‘Abd al-Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “It is permissible to offer the funeral prayer for the deceased inside the graveyard just as it is permissible to offer the funeral prayer for him after he is buried, because it was proven that a woman used to clean the mosque and she died. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked about her and they said, ‘She died.’ He said, ‘Why did you not tell me? Show me to her grave.’ So they showed him and he offered the prayer for her, then he said, ‘These graves are filled with darkness for their occupants, but Allaah illuminates them by my prayer over them.’” (Narrated by Muslim, 956.) From Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 8/392 3 – Praying in the graveyard – apart from the funeral (janaazah) prayer – this prayer is invalid and does not count, whether it is an obligatory prayer or a naafil prayer. The evidence for that is as follows: (i) The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “All the earth is a mosque apart from the graveyards and bathrooms.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 317; Ibn Maajah, 745; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah, 606). (ii) The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “May Allaah curse the Jews and the Christians, for they have taken the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 435; Muslim, 529). (iii) Praying in graveyards may be a means that leads to worshipping the graves, or to imitating those who worship graves. Hence, because the kaafirs used to prostrate to the sun as it was rising and setting, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade us to pray when the sun is rising or setting, lest that be taken as a means that leads to worshipping the sun instead of Allaah, or to resembling the kuffaar. 4 – Praying towards the graveyard, which is haraam, according to the correct opinion. Example: you pray with a graveyard or grave in the direction of your qiblah, but you are not praying in the graveyard, rather you are praying on some other ground that is close to the graveyard, with no wall or barrier between you and it. The evidence for this being haraam: (i) It was narrated that Abu Marthad al-Ghanawi said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not sit on graves, or pray towards them.” (Narrated by Muslim, 972). This indicates that it is haraam to pray towards graveyards or towards graves or towards a single grave. (ii) The reason why it is not allowed to pray towards a graveyard is the same as the reason why it is not allowed to pray towards a grave. So long as a person is facing towards the grave or graveyard in such a way that it may be said that he is praying towards it, then this comes under the prohibition, and if it comes under the prohibition then it is not valid, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Do not pray …” The prohibition here is on praying, so if a person prays towards a grave, he is combining obedience and disobedience, and it is not possible to draw closer to Allaah in such a manner. Note: If there is a wall between you and the graveyard, then the basic principle is that it is acceptable to pray in this case and it is not prohibited. Similarly, if there is a street or a considerable distance which would mean that you cannot be regarded as praying towards the graves, then this is acceptable. And Allaah knows best. See al-Mughni, 1/403; al-Sharh al-Mumti’ by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 2/232. 2 – The issue of intercession You were mistaken when you said that no one will intercede on the Day of Resurrection except the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Rather the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) will intercede and so will others among the believers. See Question no. 11931. But we will add here an issue that was not mentioned there, which is that there are conditions attached to intercession: 1 – Permission must be granted by Allaah to the intercessor to intercede. 2 – Allaah must approve of the one for whom intercession is to be made. The evidence for these two conditions is the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allaah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with” [al-Najm 53:26] “and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased” [al-Anbiya’ 21:28] As for the imaginary intercession which the idol-worshippers think their gods perform for them, this is an invalid intercession, for Allaah does not permit intercession unless He is pleased both with the intercessor and those for whom intercession is made. See al-Qawl al-Mufeed Sharh Kitaab al-Tawheed by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him), p. 336-337. The fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the believers will intercede does not justify asking them to intercede, as some people do when they ask the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to intercede for them even after his death. Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid Create Comments

Two avalanches occurred in March 1910 in the Cascade and Selkirk Mountain ranges; On March 1 the Wellington avalanche killed 96 in Washington State, United States. Three days later 62 railroad workers were killed in the Rogers Pass avalanche in British Columbia, Canada. During World War I, an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front, many of which were caused by artillery fire.[21][22] Some 10,000 men, from both sides, lost their lives in avalanches in December 1916.[23] In the northern hemisphere winter of 1950–1951 approximately 649 avalanches were recorded in a three-month period throughout the Alps in Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany. This series of avalanches killed around 265 people and was termed the Winter of Terror. A mountain climbing camp on Lenin Peak, in what is now Kyrgyzstan, was wiped out in 1990 when an earthquake triggered a large avalanche that overran the camp.[24] Forty-three climbers were killed.[25] In 1993, the Bayburt Üzengili avalanche killed 60 individuals in Üzengili in the province of Bayburt, Turkey. A large avalanche in Montroc, France, in 1999, 300,000 cubic metres of snow slid on a 30° slope, achieving a speed in the region of 100 km/h (62 mph). It killed 12 people in their chalets under 100,000 tons of snow, 5 meters (16 feet) deep. The mayor of Chamonix was convicted of second-degree murder for not evacuating the area, but received a suspended sentence.[26] The small Austrian village of Galtür was hit by the Galtür avalanche in 1999. The village was thought to be in a safe zone but the avalanche was exceptionally large and flowed into the village. Thirty-one people died. On December 1, 2000, the Glory Bowl Avalanche formed on Mt. Glory which is located within the Teton Mountain Range in Wyoming, United States. Joel Roof was snowboarding recreationally in this backcountry, bowl-shaped run and triggered the avalanche. He was carried nearly 2,000 feet to the base of the mountain and was not successfully rescued.[27]

The Sun has eight known planets. This includes four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars), two gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), and two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune). The Solar System also has five dwarf planets, an asteroid belt, numerous comets, and a large number of icy bodies which lie beyond the orbit of Neptune.

The core of the Sun extends from the center to about 20–25% of the solar radius.[66] It has a density of up to 150 g/cm3[67][68] (about 150 times the density of water) and a temperature of close to 15.7 million kelvins (K).[68] By contrast, the Sun's surface temperature is approximately 5,800 K. Recent analysis of SOHO mission data favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the radiative zone above.[66] Through most of the Sun's life, energy has been produced by nuclear fusion in the core region through a series of steps called the p–p (proton–proton) chain; this process converts hydrogen into helium.[69] Only 0.8% of the energy generated in the Sun comes from the CNO cycle, though this proportion is expected to increase as the Sun becomes older.[70] The core is the only region in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of thermal energy through fusion; 99% of the power is generated within 24% of the Sun's radius, and by 30% of the radius, fusion has stopped nearly entirely. The remainder of the Sun is heated by this energy as it is transferred outwards through many successive layers, finally to the solar photosphere where it escapes into space as sunlight or the kinetic energy of particles.[51][71] The proton–proton chain occurs around 9.2×1037 times each second in the core, converting about 3.7×1038 protons into alpha particles (helium nuclei) every second (out of a total of ~8.9×1056 free protons in the Sun), or about 6.2×1011 kg/s.[51] Fusing four free protons (hydrogen nuclei) into a single alpha particle (helium nucleus) releases around 0.7% of the fused mass as energy,[72] so the Sun releases energy at the mass–energy conversion rate of 4.26 million metric tons per second (which requires 600 metric megatons of hydrogen [73]), for 384.6 yottawatts (3.846×1026 W),[1] or 9.192×1010 megatons of TNT per second. Theoretical models of the Sun's interior indicate a power density of approximately 276.5 W/m3,[74] a value that more nearly approximates that of reptile metabolism or a compost pile[75] than of a thermonuclear bomb.[e] The fusion rate in the core is in a self-correcting equilibrium: a slightly higher rate of fusion would cause the core to heat up more and expand slightly against the weight of the outer layers, reducing the density and hence the fusion rate and correcting the perturbation; and a slightly lower rate would cause the core to cool and shrink slightly, increasing the density and increasing the fusion rate and again reverting it to its present rate.[

A plasma arc furnace (PAF) uses plasma torches instead of graphite electrodes. Each of these torches consists of a casing provided with a nozzle and an axial tubing for feeding a plasma-forming gas (either nitrogen or argon), and a burnable cylindrical graphite electrode located within the tubing. Such furnaces can be referred to as "PAM" (Plasma Arc Melt) furnaces. They are used extensively in the titanium melt industry and similar specialty metals industries.[

The most record-breaking tornado in recorded history was the Tri-State Tornado, which roared through parts of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana on March 18, 1925. It was likely an F5, though tornadoes were not ranked on any scale in that era. It holds records for longest path length (219 miles, 352 km), longest duration (about 3.5 hours), and fastest forward speed for a significant tornado (73 mph, 117 km/h) anywhere on Earth. In addition, it is the deadliest single tornado in United States history (695 dead).[22] The tornado was also the costliest tornado in history at the time (unadjusted for inflation), but in the years since has been surpassed by several others if population changes over time are not considered. When costs are normalized for wealth and inflation, it ranks third today.[105] The deadliest tornado in world history was the Daultipur-Salturia Tornado in Bangladesh on April 26, 1989, which killed approximately 1,300 people.[74] Bangladesh has had at least 19 tornadoes in its history kill more than 100 people, almost half of the total in the rest of the world. The most extensive tornado outbreak on record was the 2011 Super Outbreak, which spawned 362 confirmed tornadoes over the southeastern United States–218 of them within a single 24-hour period. The previous record was the 1974 Super Outbreak which spawned 148 tornadoes. While direct measurement of the most violent tornado wind speeds is nearly impossible, since conventional anemometers would be destroyed by the intense winds and flying debris, some tornadoes have been scanned by mobile Doppler radar units, which can provide a good estimate of the tornado's winds. The highest wind speed ever measured in a tornado, which is also the highest wind speed ever recorded on the planet, is 301 ± 20 mph (484 ± 32 km/h) in the F5 Bridge Creek-Moore, Oklahoma, tornado which killed 36 people.[106] Though the reading was taken about 100 feet (30 m) above the ground, this is a testament to the power of the strongest tornadoes.[3] Storms that produce tornadoes can feature intense updrafts, sometimes exceeding 150 mph (240 km/h). Debris from a tornado can be lofted into the parent storm and carried a very long distance. A tornado which affected Great Bend, Kansas, in November 1915, was an extreme case, where a "rain of debris" occurred 80 miles (130 km) from the town, a sack of flour was found 110 miles (180 km) away, and a cancelled check from the Great Bend bank was found in a field outside of Palmyra, Nebraska, 305 miles (491 km) to the northeast.[107] Waterspouts and tornadoes have been advanced as an explanation for instances of raining fish and other animals.[108]

Moskstraumen[edit] Main article: Moskstraumen Moskstraumen is an unusual system of whirlpools in the open seas in the Lofoten Islands off the Norwegian coast.[4] It is the second strongest whirlpool in the world with flow currents reaching speeds as high as 32 km/h (20 mph). It finds mention in several books and movies.[5] The Moskstraumen is formed by the combination of powerful semi-diurnal tides and the unusual shape of the seabed, with a shallow ridge between the Moskenesøya and Værøy islands which amplifies and whirls the tidal currents.[6] The fictional depictions of the Maelstrom by Edgar Allan Poe and Jules Verne describe it as a gigantic circular vortex that reaches the bottom of the ocean, when in fact it is a set of currents and crosscurrents with a rate of 18 km/h (11 mph).[7] Poe described this phenomenon in his short story A Descent into the Maelstrom, which in 1841 was the first to use the word "maelstrom" in the English language;[6] in this story related to the Lofoten Maelstrom, two fishermen are swallowed by the maelstrom while one survives miraculously.[8

Antique bisque dolls are collectible and can be quite valuable. The most expensive bisque doll ever sold went for GBP £242,500[8] (an art character doll made by Kämmer & Reinhardt). But prices vary widely depending on the quality and condition of the doll. Preferable qualities of the bisque include a slight translucency without spots or holes. Dolls that are painted with more skill and have detailed features are valued higher.[1] Other qualities include closed mouths and expressions that are not "pretty" such as a character face that is crying. More articulated bodies that can be posed more freely, like jointed wood or composition bodies, are valued higher than stiffer papier-mâché or leather bodies.[1] French 1860-1890 fashion dolls are commonly worth over US$2000, and dolls from well-known doll makers like Jumeau, Bru and Huret can be worth over US$20,000.[2][9] Among the French Bébés early dolls from Jumeau and Bru generally go for several thousand dollars, while later S.F.B.J dolls may be worth only a few hundred.[2] Among German dolls, the character-faced dolls are the most collectible, with rarer dolls fetching several thousand dollars.[2] At the lower end of the price range are dolls that can be found for a few hundred dollars, like dolls from Armand Marseille and common types of dolls from Kestner.[7] Unmarked dolls that can't be identified as coming from a specific manufacturer also fetch lower prices, but there are many exceptions. Small all-bisque penny dolls can be found at low prices as well.[7] Carl Horn all bisque dolls are an exception, fetching upwards of $150 a piece for a 1" tall all-bisque doll.[10]

A bisque doll or porcelain doll is a doll made partially or wholly out of bisque porcelain. Bisque dolls are characterized by their realistic, skin-like matte finish. They had their peak of popularity between 1860 and 1900 with French and German dolls. Bisque dolls are collectible, and antique dolls can be worth thousands of US dollars. Antique German and French bisque dolls from the 19th century were often made as children's playthings, but contemporary bisque dolls are predominantly made directly for the collectors market.[1][2] Colloquially the terms porcelain doll, bisque doll and china doll are sometimes used interchangeably. But collectors, when referring to antique dolls, make a distinction between china dolls, made of glazed porcelain, and bisque dolls, made of unglazed porcelain. When referring to contemporary dolls the terms porcelain and bisque are sometimes used interchangeably.

Hey, Queen of Sorcercers: I'm a Frog Prince. Smooch eh?

The most poisonous of these frogs, the golden poison frog (Phyllobates terribilis), has enough toxin on average to kill ten to twenty men or about ten thousand mice.[34] Most other dendrobatids, while colorful and toxic enough to discourage predation, pose far less risk to humans or other large animals.

How many Mother-to-be but Dead? How many Still Borns? How many Unborn and Dead?

Each year complications from pregnancy and childbirth result in about 500,000 maternal deaths, 7 million women have serious long term problems, and 50 million women have health negative outcomes following delivery.[15] Most of these occur in the developing world.[15] Specific complications include obstructed labour, postpartum bleeding, eclampsia, and postpartum infection.[15] Complications in the baby include birth asphyxia.[16]

Is there a specific word for a Global Community of Sorcercers? Networked Telephathyically analogous to our Internet?

Swallowed (Ingested) foreign bodies Children commonly swallow things such as coins, small toys, or batteries When a child swallows an object, it will travel through the digestive tract The digestive tract is made up of the oesophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and small and large intestines Most swallowed objects travel through the digestive tract and leave the body without causing problems Some objects can cause problems and need to be removed from the digestive tract by a doctor Objects in the oesophagus may not pass into the stomach and can cause problems. These sometimes need to be removed by a doctor If the object is in the stomach or further along, most children will pass the object on their own If your child has swallowed a button battery (from a watch or calculator) or magnets you should seek urgent medical care Signs and symptoms Many children have no symptoms after swallowing an object If children do have symptoms, they may have: Trouble swallowing food Drooling Pain in the chest or neck Coughing, trouble breathing, or noisy breathing These symptoms usually happen when the object is stuck in the oesophagus. You should seek urgent medical care if this happens Very rarely, the object can become stuck in the stomach or intestines. If this happens your child may have ongoing vomiting, abdominal (tummy) pain, blood in their vomit or poo, or develop a fever. Seek urgent medical care if any of these things happen If your child is coughing or has difficulty breathing, the object may be in their airway or lungs. These objects need to be removed and you should seek urgent medical care What should I expect Does my child need an x-ray? The doctor or nurse will ask what your child has swallowed An x-ray will be done if the swallowed object is made of material that shows up on an x-ray, or if your child has worrying symptoms Do swallowed objects need to be removed? This depends on what the object is and where it is in the digestive tract Some objects can harm the body and may need to be removed urgently. These include batteries (button and disc batteries) and magnets. Objects in the oesophagus often need to be removed. This will depend on your child's symptoms Most objects in the stomach or further along (in the intestines) will pass safely on their own If your child has worrying symptoms after swallowing an object, it may need to be removed. You should seek medical advice if you are concerned about any symptoms If the object doesn't need to be removed: If we are unable to see the object on an x-ray and your child has no worrying symptoms, it is ok to observe your child at home for these symptoms Even sharp objects like broken glass and pins will most likely pass once they are in the stomach or further along Things to look for at home: Abdominal (tummy) pain Ongoing vomiting Blood in your child's vomit Blood in your child's faeces (poo) Fever Follow-up Most children do not need any follow up or further x-rays There is no need to examine your child's faeces to find the swallowed object Key points to remember Most children will pass the object on their own once it is in their stomach or further along After you leave the doctor or emergency department, observe your child at home for the symptoms listed above If you are concerned about your child, please seek medical advice References List any references or research/evidence to support the information you are providing. Also please list and add the URL for any associated Clinical Practice Guideline. Gilger, Jain & McOmber (2012). Foreign bodies of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract in children. UpToDate. UpToDate. Patient information: Swallowed objects (The Basics) RCH CPG Ingested foreign bodies: Developed in consultation with the Emergency Department and Surgical Department. First published April 2013. Kids Health Info app The app will enable you to search and browse more than three hundred medical fact sheets and work offline. Google play Apple store Disclaimer This information is intended to support, not replace, discussion with your doctor or healthcare professionals. The authors of these consumer health information handouts have made a considerable effort to ensure the information is accurate, up to date and easy to understand. The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne accepts no responsibility for any inaccuracies, information perceived as misleading, or the success of any treatment regimen detailed in these handouts. Information contained in the handouts is updated regularly and therefore you should always check you are referring to the most recent version of the handout. The onus is on you, the user, to ensure that you have downloaded the most up-to-date version of a consumer health information handout.

Choking is the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs. Choking prevents breathing, and can be partial or complete, with partial choking allowing some, although inadequate, flow of air into the lungs. Prolonged or complete choking results in asphyxia which leads to anoxia and is potentially fatal. Oxygen stored in the blood and lungs can keep a person alive for several minutes after breathing stops.[1] Choking can be caused by: Physical obstruction of the airway by a foreign body. Respiratory diseases that involve obstruction of the airway. Compression of the laryngopharynx, larynx or vertebrate trachea in strangulation. Laryngospasm, a temporary closing of the vocal cords, which simulates the feeling of choking. Obstruction of the airway can occur at the level of the pharynx or the trachea. Foods that can adapt their shape to that of the pharynx (such as bananas, marshmallows, or gelatinous candies) can be a danger not just for children but for persons of any age.[2] Choking due to a foreign object resulted in 162,000 deaths in 2013 up from 140,000 deaths in 1990.[3]

Spine (vertebral column)[edit] A fully grown adult features 26 bones in the spine, whereas a child can have 34. The cervical vertebrae (7) The thoracic vertebrae (12) The lumbar vertebrae (5) The sacral vertebrae (5 at birth, later fused into one) The coccygeal vertebrae (5 at birth, some or all of the bones fuse together but there seems to be a disagreement between researchers as to what the most common number should be. Some say the most common is 1, others say 2 or 3, with 4 being the least likely. It is counted as 1 in this article.[citation needed]) Chest (thorax)[edit] There are usually 25 bones in the chest but sometimes there can be additional cervical ribs in humans. Cervical ribs occur naturally in other animals such as reptiles. The sternum (1) The ribs (24, in 12 pairs) It is important to note that three pairs (the 8th, 9th and 10th), also known as false ribs, are attached to each other. They are also attached to the 7th rib by cartilage and synovial joints. Also two pairs of floating ribs (the 11th and 12th), have no anterior attachment. Cervical ribs are extra ribs that occur in some humans. Skull (cranium)[edit] There are 22 bones in the skull. Including the hyoid and the bones of the middle ear, the head contains 29 bones. The cranial bones (8) The occipital bone The parietal bones (2) The frontal bone The temporal bones (2) The sphenoid bone (sometimes counted as facial) The ethmoid bone (sometimes counted as facial) The facial bones (14) The nasal bones (2) The maxillae (upper jaw) (2) The lacrimal bone (2) The zygomatic bone or cheekbone (2); The palatine bone (2) The inferior nasal concha (2) The vomer The mandible (lower jaw) The hyoid bone (not connected to any other bone) In the middle ears (6) malleus (2) incus (2) stapes (2) Arm[edit] There are a total of 64 bones in the arm. The upper arm bones (6 bones, 3 on each side) The humerus The shoulder (pectoral girdle) The scapula The clavicles The lower arm bones (4 bones, 2 on each side) The ulna The radius The hand (54 bones, 27 in each hand) The carpals scaphoid bone (2) lunate bone (2) triquetral bone (2) pisiform bone (2) trapezium (2) trapezoid bone (2) capitate bone (2) hamate bone (2) The metacarpals (5 × 2 = 10) The phalanges of the hand proximal phalanges (5 × 2 = 10) intermediate phalanges (4 × 2 = 8) distal phalanges (5 × 2 = 10) Pelvis (pelvic girdle)[edit] The hip bone has three regions: ilium, ischium, and pubis (2) The sacrum and the coccyx attach to the two hip bones to form the pelvis, but are more important to the spinal column. For this reason it is omitted from the pelvic girdle. Leg[edit] The femur (2) The patella or kneecap (2) The tibia (2) The fibula (2) The foot (52 bones in total, 26 per foot) The tarsus calcaneus or heel bone (2) talus (2) navicular bone (2) medial cuneiform bone (2) intermediate cuneiform bone (2) lateral cuneiform bone (2) cuboid bone (2) The metatarsals (10) The phalanges of the foot proximal phalanges (5 × 2 = 10) intermediate phalanges (4 x 2 = 8) distal phalanges (5 x 2 = 10) Sesamoid bones[edit] Patella Pisiform bone Fabella Cyamella (bone) Sesamoids in the first and second metacarpal bones Sesamoids in the first metatarsal bone Inconsistent sesamoids in other fingers and toes Lenticular process of the incus Rider's bone Inconsistent sesamoids in the legs, arms or buttocks References[edit] The 206 Bones of the Human Body Jump up ^ Mammal Anatomy: An Illustrated G

The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It is composed of around 300 bones at birth – this total decreases to 206 bones by adulthood after some bones have fused together.[1] The bone mass in the skeleton reaches maximum density around age 20. The human skeleton can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton, which is attached to the axial skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs. The human skeleton performs six major functions; support, movement, protection, production of blood cells, storage of minerals, and endocrine regulation. The human skeleton is not as sexually dimorphic as that of many other primate species, but subtle differences between sexes in the morphology of the skull, dentition, long bones, and pelvis exist. In general, female skeletal elements tend to be smaller and less robust than corresponding male elements within a given population. The human female pelvis is also different from that of males in order to facilitate child birth.[2] Unlike most primates, human males do not have penile bones.[3]

A pressure point (Chinese: 穴位; Japanese: kyūsho 急所 "vital point, tender spot";[1] Sinhala: නිල/මර්ම ස්ථාන Nila/Marma Sthana (in Angampora); Telugu: మర్మ స్థానం Marma Sthanam; Malayalam: മര്‍മ്മം marmam; Tamil: வர்மம் varmam) derives from the meridian points in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha medicine, and the field of martial arts, and refers to an area on the human body that may produce significant pain or other effects when manipulated in a specific manner.[2] The concept of pressure points spread through the Tamil martial art called Varma kalai, which is a martial art that concentrates on the body's pressure points.[3][4] The concept of pressure points is also present in the old school Japanese martial arts; in a 1942 article in the Shin Budo magazine, Takuma Hisa asserted the existence of a tradition attributing the first development of pressure-point attacks to Shinra Saburō Minamoto no Yoshimitsu (1045–1127).[5] Hancock and Higashi (1905) published a book which pointed out a number of vital points in Japanese martial arts.[6] Accounts of pressure-point fighting appeared in Chinese Wuxia fiction novels and became known by the name of Dim Mak, or "Death Touch", in western popular culture in the 1960s. While it is undisputed that there are sensitive points on the human body where even comparatively weak pressure may induce significant pain or serious injury, the association of kyūsho with notions of Death is not scientific and is disproven.[7] References[edit] Jump up ^

‘You see, my son,’ said the king, ‘you too now begin to be a magician.’ From The Magus – John Fowles, published by Jonathan Cape, 1977.

In the USA, a frame-up (frameup) or setup is the act of framing someone, that is, providing false evidence or false testimony in order to falsely prove someone guilty of a crime.[1] Sometimes, the person who is framing someone else is the actual perpetrator of the crime. In other cases it is an attempt by law enforcement to get around due process. Motives include getting rid of political dissidents or "correcting" what they see as the court's mistake. Some lawbreakers will try to claim they were framed as a defense strategy. Frameups in labor disputes sometimes swing public opinion one way or the other. In Massachusetts, during the 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike, police acting on a tip discovered dynamite and blamed it on the union. National media echoed an anti-union message. Later, the police revealed that the dynamite had been wrapped in a magazine addressed to the son of the former mayor. The man had received an unexplained payment from the largest of the employers. Exposed, the plot swung public sympathy to the union.[2] Frameups are often part of conspiracy theories. For example, there were frameup accusations in the anthrax incident involving the United States Postal Service.[3] A frameup where a police officer shoots an unarmed suspect and then places a weapon near the body is a form of police misconduct known as a "throw down" used to justify the shooting.[4]

and he should say the great du’aa’ which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught to his companions when he said to them: “Shirk among you will be more subtle than the footsteps of an ant, but I will teach you something which, if you do it, both minor and major shirk will be kept away from you. Say: Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika an ushrika bika wa ana a’lam wa astaghfiruka lima la a’lam (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from associating anything with You knowingly, and I seek Your forgiveness for that of which I am unaware).”

Onychophora (from Ancient Greek, onyches, "claws"; and pherein, "to carry"), commonly known as velvet worms (due to their velvety texture and somewhat wormlike appearance) or more ambiguously as peripatus (after the first described genus, Peripatus), is a phylum of elongate, soft-bodied, many-legged panarthropods.[1][2] In appearance they have variously been compared to worms with legs, caterpillars, and slugs.[3] They prey upon smaller animals such as insects, which they catch by squirting an adhesive slime. Approximately 200 species have been described, although the true number of species is likely greater. The two extant families of velvet worms are Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae. They show a peculiar distribution, with the peripatids being predominantly equatorial and tropical, while the peripatopsids are all found south of the equator. It is the only phylum within animalia that is wholly endemic to terrestrial environments.[4] Velvet worms are considered close relatives of the Arthropoda and Tardigrada, with which they form the taxon Panarthropoda.[5] This makes them of palaeontological interest, as they can help reconstruct the ancestral arthropod. In modern zoology, they are particularly renowned for their curious mating behaviour and for bearing live young.

Spoiler Warning: In order to rid the town of the children, Alan devises a plan: to detonate a briefcase of explosives inside the children's classroom. By thinking of a brick wall, he is able to create a mental barrier and keep the presence of the bomb a secret from the children. Jill begs him to spare David because he is not like the others, and Alan agrees. He attempts to do this by asking David to leave the classroom to get his notebook from his car. The children begin to suspect that Alan is hiding something, and they slowly "destroy" the wall. Finally, Jill shows up, but the children stop her and attempt to use mind control. David, tired of this, rushes to her defense and knocks Mara over. The children turn on David, but Jill rushes him from the building. As soon as the children discover Alan thinking of the bomb, it detonates, killing everyone inside, along with Alan. Jill and David survive the massacre; she says that they will both move to a place where nobody knows them. David looks off into the distance as they drive away.

John Carpenter's Village of the Damned is a 1995 American science fiction-horror film directed by John Carpenter and a remake of the 1960 film of the same name which in turn is based on the novel The Midwich Cuckoos by John Wyndham. The 1995 remake is set in Northern California, whereas the book and original film were both set in the United Kingdom. The 1995 film was marketed with the tagline, "Beware the Children", and stars Christopher Reeve, Kirstie Alley, Linda Kozlowski, Michael Pare, Mark Hamill, and Meredith Salenger. In a 2011 interview Carpenter described the film as a "contractual assignment" which he was "really not passionate about".[2]

Thursday, April 27, 2017

A transcript of rea

verbatim ac litteratim. Latin: Hmm. Do you know....? Uh-huh. Effiminate. Nope. I'm horridly good at feigning. Yeah, sure. Hey Mister Stranger to the Ground. Hmm. You like Latin girls? Latin? Wasn't that an ancient civilization -- historiographicalplay speaking -- of course, with a pinch of salt. What? Hysteria? Tell me something: Why you act so jumpy as if the aliens from some outer space vying for your blood? Like some leader of Guerilla WarFare. Zoological Park here, you mean? So you're an agent? What detergent? Damn...What ma'am. Sham. Ham. Burger. Maybe, with some jazzy ham radio. What're you doing here? What do you mean eh? Are you Miss UnderCover? Maybe. Wow! What that's exclamation! Traffic Stopper. What? Pretty intimidating. Former bomb squad disposal unit eh? Are you crazy. Bombshell. SeaShell. Damn. It's so really real noisy here -- let's go in there. You sure. Yeah, why. I'm bankrupt and this shack looks really real ritzy. Whatver...follow me. Where? On Facebook or Twitter. No here in this street Mister Mugger -- Day Light Stalker. But the sun is almost set. This is not funny. You're freaking me out, alright. I'm scared for you. Okay. I apolgize...let it me..moreover, I don't think at least -- I'd get a tea -- at such a place. Just help me get to this place. Here you go:

Jean-Baptiste Jourdan with marshal's baton

By the way, can you read French? It's plain text.

Now, this -- as well:

Plain text?

Nope. Decrypted.

James Bond or Moron?

Both are out of town.

Alpha Male here.

Uh-huh. I'm not surprised.

Hey Miss...tell me about night life?

I thought you're here to save lives -- if i believe you for a moment in the first place!


military attaché



You get Mister Bean's movies there -- pirated or otherwise?

Spiky snipe. Ignored. As if subdued by traffic noise or vehicular violation of decibal...

Stop. Stop.

Hey. What.

You're rude.

Is that French?


You burrowed our words.

I'm here to hunt down wood borer.

Go away. You're so boring.

Dance floor.

Jazz. You and I. What do you call those intermittent crazy lights?

Do you dance?

Nope. Men do. Alpha Males. Never.

You know you really remind me of that flick: The Elephant Man.


See. I're just a expat or er drat ahem an Indian expatriate -- this chap -- computer geek or er oops The Alpha Geek -- Who re-wrote The Ethical Hacekrs' Manifesto -- and all that -- you don't have to role-play a Spy and this and that to you know....

Oh. I'm so ashamed of myself.

Tsk, tsk.

Why do you like French girls?

I used to..I dunno...Never thought about it. I don't want to be here. This is a place exurbiating with false pride -- people don't tell me my way to home -- theirs even -- that type of mock dunno whatever.

So you've Bedouin origin? Ethinicity? Victim of discrimination -- reverse or otherwise.

You've courage.

Nope. It doesn't exist. There're only fearful thoughts.

You know, you're really so amusing. We don't have people like you here.

You get pet snails for the same reason?

I'm writing a book about you. My Tryst with Mutiny. mutineer -- That's my you know before last Pizza meal. Bye. Farewell. Wait, no cabs.

Do you have solar-powered kettle?

Yep. A wind mill too but you tell me those gory sob story of birds right....

Yep. Why do you ask anyways?

I started as a Shamanic Profiler under the tutelage of Mister Douglas.


Nope. rotary-wing aircrafts -- not even putting out jungle fires. Pyromaniacs or arsonists. That's not my domain. It's of course their Frankenstein. I believe that aviation fuel is a valuable resource and should and must be -- such natural resources should be channelized for other things -- other than weeds.

You write Novels and all -- right.

Frederick Forsyth. The Cobra.


Yep. Brat, too.

You're so pesudo. Admit it.


You're a pest.


Hey, I was just kidding -- Mister Tear-Jerker. Poor baby.

Tell me something.

Ask me anything.

Define anything.

Define define.

What's my crime.

No alibi either. At least that convincing.

Benefit of the doubt.

Thought. At the speed of thought.


Hmm. As if some real meany mean sniper is about to a crack shot at you.


So you're no delusional.

Nope. Illusions.

Can't you talk like any other forty-something moderately or so educated -- somewhat computer savvy Indian guy/


Yeah, then who?

What're you doing?

Maybe we'd watch a movie. At your place, of course. And, pizza and all.

Pizza? Movie?


My place?


You know where I live?

I'm working on it.

That patrol car you see--go ask 'em for directions to the maximum security prison.


Hey, they are mobile gas chaps for recovery vans?


Why do you complicate simple things?

Why do you ask me why I do what I do?



Lost puppy.

I love kitties.

Maybe, I'd war drive you to your shack or whatever -- why such humble name for a bunker huh?

Love and Other Troubles (original Finnish title: Hulluna Saraan) is a 2012 Finnish romantic comedy film directed by Samuli Valkama.

How'd you...and, this Wiki printout -- coarse font.

See you already -- predecided -- that's why we don't talk to you.

I miss that...

You mean it?

I never say anything for the heck of it.

I'm homesick.

This is not Isla Bonito. This is xenophobia.

xenophobically speaking -- we're jumpy around dialbolics!

the hint of Schadenfreude in your tone is unmistakable. Of course, someone like me can tell like a seasoned sommelier around veterans!

You mug up those pompous bombastic words -- and those really real hilariously funny E-mails at three o' clock in the night -- you look up those words? Be honest. CopyPaste Mister?

This world is a place of trials and tribulations. Ingenuity and Indigenious-ilty is striked out as blatant pliagrism.

Tsk, tsk.

Let's go then. Saturday.

Are you out of your mind? Are you asking me to go out with you?

Why? I look that retarded to you.

I dunno.


Stint. I'm going back.


I don't know....If I change my mind...I'll pick you up. Go home, and stay there.

And, navigate like Polynesian....

Nope. Those chaps are kidding with me. That's how I bumped into you -- in the first place.

Yeah, yeah.

Yeah, yeah...I'm going to the Air Port.

Yeah, send me a souvenir from there.

Nope. Duty free is always sky-rocket-try. Maybe, when I'm home.

Hey, wait.

That's why Osho said. Never trust a French girl.'s not about trust. Ok?


It's that. Miss Tyrst with Destiny.

You're such a good thespian you know. Stay here. Indefinitely. I know this really real grooviest French girl. Theater personality.

Nope. No Promiscuity.

I'll help you pack....

It is hard to pack an entire life into one suitcase.

Damn you. Okay. Don't act like real weirdo. It's a chic neighborhood.

Go home and stay home...


Nope. I was of course kidding. Goofing around with you -- just the same as always.

Why these Zombies oogling gawking at me like that? Haven't they seen a really real Almost Tall and Truly Dark Moderately Handsome Indian Alpha Male with a Pretty French girl eh?


Nope. Let's walk.


Even if you live in another city.

Nope piggyback okay don't you think you're too scarecrowish for that eh?

Oh, this keyword reminds me when I was at the Himalayan Basecamp....LOL



What's the French for it.


You sure.

Shut up.

Isn't keep quiet is more polite.

rainbow braids -- colors of butterflies
paper boats giving puddles a chase
he sits there with a twig
like the reflections of skies
in this stream passing by whispers to him -- there's she is
Dragonflies hover around him unshy unafraid
Is that faith -- like the ripples -- pretending to be waves
He doesn't look that way -- but that pebble tells the prince
Be a frog -- commit same mistakes.
So are you a poetess of deceit or a priestess of Greece
Ancient Roman wooden spinning tops
Spinning CouterClockWise
Venus is real shy
Jupiter takes a nose-dive

This boy -- looks at his tops that spins own their own
I think I love the bright one with jewel-like crown
As if it's has will of its own
Even when I'm too lazy to get the string of vine
She can have my shoeshine
But for that fake dime
You always fool around
You are the only scarecrow in this hamlet like town
Why Don't Spiders Get Stuck in Their Webs? Real geeky -- nerds ask this question and try really seriously to answer it -- and give it to us -- in a Frequently-Asked-Questions FAQ format -- in a Tell Me Why -- Book form -- that won't cost you like crazy. And, they don't call or think that you're crazy just because you're inquisitive and observant -- and, brave enough to ask this question itself. We don't tell you that this is the right answer. And, that's the end of it. We tell you this in simple, brief -- non-initimating words -- that -- this person from this place did this research and all that and ad infinitum. And, at the end of this book -- we give you links to web pages that we diligently try to keep updated so that you keep yourself posted with what's really going on? And, other book titles asking the same Tell-Me-Whys healthy nose-park-ish syndrome or whatever -- that bug in you right -- so that nosy -- we call you nosy -- we don't call you an intruder -- so it's us now -- aren't we -- it's not ain't we -- here, it's still considered user-generated something -- non-mainstream-ish -- you've the prerogative to submit a real groovy word -- but we exercise our right to decide if that's the right choice of word -- the mainstream newspaper reader would like to read at the breakfast table or brunch if's sunday and kids and particularly your wife at home -- and a miracle -- you're having this hot dogs for a change -- or sausage -- and, he blurts out -- Dad..Hmm. This reminds me that there's this cool warez hot dog pro sumthning or whatver from this sausage geeks -- for you know -- Kevin he's trying to talk to you -- ya ya -- so Dad..want some this sausage? No..thanks ya maybe a little -- so what're you saying..nothing Dad. Yummy breakfast. Or was that brunch. Crunch dad. Time. To go. Where To. War Driving. Oh ya. Ya. What do you think. With that groovy music player! want that docking bird down in nanos and niner..huh. Oops. Fine then. See you around. Okay okay. Kevin. Ya...give some water to the pigeons...ya okay I did I think..bye mom..bye at your sister's place...ya..okay..Veronica? Or Betty? Dunno maybe. I'm not that optimistic this morning. No rainbow. No sunshine. Over. And, out. mom. Roger, that. Kevin. He's like you. Nope. Nope. You never say Nope. Because of you. What do you mean? See. What? Let's go fishing? Fishing. The least you hunt is a whale. Forget it. Mister...whatver. Where To. Harpoon. I'll stick in your eyes. Stop looking at me like that. Dialbolic devil. Couch potato. My father was right. Damn you.
I'm really crazy about American English. There's a distinct word for each and everything -- every blurry, fuzzy -- hazy -- inexplicable things. America is a bird sanctuary. All migratory birds -- political asylum-seekers -- or people who want to study why bad things happen to good people -- So, that stuff we'd do -- during our orientation -- righto -- Hmm. Thanks. See you around. Brown bags? Yeah, yeah.

Dad. Isn't that a real groovy way of having a conversation when you pretend that you understood when you didn't. Dishonesty. Dad. Tell me the truth. Please.

Hmm. Did he make me feel realy real apologetic for my you know....even a his tone?




Then. That's why - we're here.

What do parents cherish the most about their kids. The Firsts. Steps. Babbling...or what's that eh? Baby Talk.

Language. Right?

That's why we're here -- you and I -- your mom -- and your big sister. To learn. First: language. Or just that.

It's not about being you know -- it's not -- words and all that. It's this naive thing. Naive now means weak or so. But it wasn't so -- even now, not for an awful lot of people.


Can I tell you something morbid. You just woke up. But something I trust is less -- at least -- a little than those blood-thristy cartoons you watch -- when you're suppose to go to Dojo and practice some full-contact sparring -- and zapping this really real brat-ish bad kid who called your big sister so unfair-ingly -- Dunno Pony Tail Princess Am I your Black Prince Masquerading as a White Beast -- so you wanna read my kindle edition of Beauty and Beauty! My Blog is That Is What Is Dot Com -- Come -- Let's goof around -- Is your Dad out of Town -- Never call my dad Brown! Okay! Mirinda Rights. My Old-Timer. Go to Mexico Border Patrol for help.



Like that, Dad. This is a place to learn. A univerisity. An Ashram. Yep.

Hmm. Whatever, Dad. 
A Handwritten Letter the Prison System Doesn't Want You to See
A fellow inmate shares an eyewitness account of the latest suicide at Supermax.

Why Don't Spiders Get Stuck in Their Webs? Real geeky -- nerds ask this question and try really seriously to answer it -- and give it to us -- in a Frequently-Asked-Questions FAQ format -- in a Tell Me Why -- Book form -- that won't cost you like crazy. And, they don't call or think that you're crazy just because you're inquisitive and observant -- and, brave enough to ask this question itself. We don't tell you that this is the right answer. And, that's the end of it. We tell you this in simple, brief -- non-initimating words -- that -- this person from this place did this research and all that and ad infinitum. And, at the end of this book -- we give you links to web pages that we diligently try to keep updated so that you keep yourself posted with what's really going on? And, other book titles asking the same Tell-Me-Whys healthy nose-park-ish syndrome or whatever -- that bug in you right -- so that nosy -- we call you nosy -- we don't call you an intruder -- so it's us now -- aren't we -- it's not ain't we -- here, it's still considered user-generated something -- non-mainstream-ish -- you've the prerogative to submit a real groovy word -- but we exercise our right to decide if that's the right choice of word -- the mainstream newspaper reader would like to read at the breakfast table or brunch if's sunday and kids and particularly your wife at home -- and a miracle -- you're having this hot dogs for a change -- or sausage -- and, he blurts out -- Dad..Hmm. This reminds me that there's this cool warez hot dog pro sumthning or whatver from this sausage geeks -- for you know -- Kevin he's trying to talk to you -- ya ya -- so Dad..want some this sausage? No..thanks ya maybe a little -- so what're you saying..nothing Dad. Yummy breakfast. Or was that brunch. Crunch dad. Time. To go. Where To. War Driving. Oh ya. Ya. What do you think. With that groovy music player! want that docking bird down in nanos and niner..huh. Oops. Fine then. See you around. Okay okay. Kevin. Ya...give some water to the pigeons...ya okay I did I think..bye mom..bye at your sister's place...ya..okay..Veronica? Or Betty? Dunno maybe. I'm not that optimistic this morning. No rainbow. No sunshine. Over. And, out. mom. Roger, that. Kevin. He's like you. Nope. Nope. You never say Nope. Because of you. What do you mean? See. What? Let's go fishing? Fishing. The least you hunt is a whale. Forget it. Mister...whatver. Where To. Harpoon. I'll stick in your eyes. Stop looking at me like that. Dialbolic devil. Couch potato. My father was right. Damn you.
I'm really crazy about American English. There's a distinct word for each and everything -- every blurry, fuzzy -- hazy -- inexplicable things. America is a bird sanctuary. All migratory birds -- political asylum-seekers -- or people who want to study why bad things happen to good people -- So, that stuff we'd do -- during our orientation -- righto -- Hmm. Thanks. See you around. Brown bags? Yeah, yeah.

Dad. Isn't that a real groovy way of having a conversation when you pretend that you understood when you didn't. Dishonesty. Dad. Tell me the truth. Please.

Hmm. Did he make me feel realy real apologetic for my you know....even a his tone?




Then. That's why - we're here.

What do parents cherish the most about their kids. The Firsts. Steps. Babbling...or what's that eh? Baby Talk.

Language. Right?

That's why we're here -- you and I -- your mom -- and your big sister. To learn. First: language. Or just that.

It's not about being you know -- it's not -- words and all that. It's this naive thing. Naive now means weak or so. But it wasn't so -- even now, not for an awful lot of people.


Can I tell you something morbid. You just woke up. But something I trust is less -- at least -- a little than those blood-thristy cartoons you watch -- when you're suppose to go to Dojo and practice some full-contact sparring -- and zapping this really real brat-ish bad kid who called your big sister so unfair-ingly -- Dunno Pony Tail Princess Am I your Black Prince Masquerading as a White Beast -- so you wanna read my kindle edition of Beauty and Beauty! My Blog is That Is What Is Dot Com -- Come -- Let's goof around -- Is your Dad out of Town -- Never call my dad Brown! Okay! Mirinda Rights. My Old-Timer. Go to Mexico Border Patrol for help.



Like that, Dad. This is a place to learn. A univerisity. An Ashram. Yep.

Hmm. Whatever, Dad. 

ANDREW COHEN is a contributing editor at The Atlantic. He is a legal analyst for 60 Minutes and CBS Radio News, a fellow at the Brennan Center for Justice, and commentary editor at The Marshall Project.

Subjective Refraction is an attempt to determine, by trial and error using the patient’s cooperation, the combination of lenses that will provide the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA).[1] It is a clinical examination used by orthoptists, optometrists and ophthalmologists to determine a patient's need for refractive correction, in the form of glasses or contact lenses. The aim is to improve current unaided vision or vision with current glasses.

Trial Frame.

This is an alology. That's primarily our media. Print. Electronic. Word of mouth. Gossip. Grapevine. Malicious. Or, was just pulling your leg-type. By the way, that's so kinda arhiac right huh? Like Heartthrob. Hyphen? Anyway--Do NOT let anyone else hoodwink you. Trial Frame. Crystal clear eh? 

A visually-impaired person -- Hypothesis okay? Don't make me feel guilty that's he so really real functional-illeterate or so that he doesn't know what a Snellen chart is. Donate with unabashed -- unashmed -- vested-interested-infested -- Braille. He might stumble up who Louis Braille. He or his predecessor may grudgingly forgive the French for this ganged-up-against-us, global-conspiracy against die-hard believers -- this colossal sin and unprecendent annihilation of our basic, fundamental religious right -- for not letting our girls wear scarf.

Take off those trial frames. 

Watching a monochrome movie with 3D glasses and -- you've to hand it over to the usher at The End of your Media-Induced-Coma. How many of us didn't do that eh? Those Olympic Flashlights were different. Under the seat. Flash. We're so good at it. Air Crafts, too. If we'd get....get those Parachutes? Nope. Life jackets. Slide. Hello, Mermaid. I just crash landed. Where's Passport control? Yep. Of course, here is my Dis-Em-BARK-ation Card. I used to get As for neat and clean handwriting. Computers destroyed me. Tsk, tsk. Next....

In 1988, the World Bank estimated that 1–2% of the global population subsists by waste picking.[8] A 2010 study estimates that there are 1.5 million waste pickers in India alone.[9] Brazil, the country that collects the most robust official statistics on waste pickers, estimates that nearly a quarter million of its citizens engage in waste picking.

A Rag-picker, or Chiffonnier, is term for someone who makes a living by rummaging through refuse in the streets to collect material for salvage. Scraps of cloth and paper could be turned into cardboard, broken glass could be melted down and reused, and even dead cats and dogs could be skinned to make clothes. The rag-pickers in 19th and early 20th Century did not recycle the materials themselves; they would simply collect whatever they could find and turn it over to a "master rag-picker" (usually a former rag-picker) who would, in turn, sell it—generally by weight—to wealthy investors with the means to convert the materials into something more profitable.[1][2] Although it was solely a job for the lowest of the working classes, rag-picking was considered an honest occupation, more on the level of street sweeper than of a beggar. In Paris, for instance, rag-pickers were regulated by law: their operations were restricted to certain times of night, and they were required to return any unusually valuable items to the owner or to the authorities.[1] When Eugène Poubelle introduced the garbage can in 1884, he was criticized in the French newspapers for meddling with the rag-pickers' livelihoods.[3] Modern sanitation and recycling programs ultimately caused the profession to decline, though it did not disappear entirely; rag and bone men are not uncommon in England today. Rag-picking is still widespread in Third World countries today, such as in Mumbai, India, where it offers the poorest in society around the rubbish and recycling areas a chance to earn a hand-to-mouth supply of money. In 2015, the Environment Minister of India declared a national award to recognise the service rendered by rag-pickers. The award, with a cash prize of Rs. 1.5 lakh, is for three best rag pickers and three associations involved in innovation of best practices.

Manual scavenging is a caste-based occupation involving the removal of untreated human excreta from bucket toilets or pit latrines, that has been officially abolished by law in India as a dehumanizing practice. It involves moving the excreta, using brooms and tin plates, into baskets, which the workers carry to disposal locations sometimes several kilometers away.[1] The workers, called scavengers, rarely have any personal protective equipment. The term is mainly used in the Indian context only. The employment of manual scavengers to empty "dry toilets" (meaning here toilets that require daily manual cleaning) was prohibited in India in 1993 and the law was extended and clarified to include insanitary latrines, ditches and pits in 2013.[2] According to Socio Economic Caste Census 2011, 180,657 households are engaged in manual scavenging for a livelihood.[3] The 2011 Census of India found 794,000 cases of manual scavenging across India.[4] The state of Maharashtra, with 63,713, tops the list with the largest number of households working as manual scavengers, followed by the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura and Karnataka.

So, Dervish: What's the resolution? Deduce. Holmesian Logic. Science of deduction. It's a Parasite. I've christened it The Demon King Ravana. It's a parasite. So Laxman Rekha or Vayu Putr. Innoculation. Dollars or Dirhams? Panadol or Crocin? Vicks Action 500. I'm working on it, sir. I'd get back to you ASAP I zero in on something credible and substantial. Okay. Anything. Hotline. Okay. Sir. Hmm.

Penance. Repent. Stop zapping 'em with those sticky inhumane and animal cruetly disapproved You're stuck -- See you can't run -- Mouse Trap? Rebuilding. Jim Corbett. Role-Playing. Skirmishes with mousy rats. Purr. Where did you go my Wildcat?

Honestly, I didn't quite get this -- just a rat parasite can literally annihilate human? Brink / Verge of Extinction? Eureka! I just found the Demon King. So the Evil Soul of Ravana is living in a rat. Oh my God.

The Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) engorged with blood. This species of flea is the primary vector for the transmission of Yersinia pestis, the organism responsible for bubonic plague in most plague epidemics. Both male and female fleas feed on blood and can transmit the infection.

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–1353.[1][2][3] Although there were several competing theories as to the cause of the Black Death, analyses of DNA from people in northern and southern Europe published in 2010 and 2011 indicate that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, resulting in several forms of plague.[4][5] The Black Death is thought to have originated in the arid plains of Central Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea by 1343.[6] From there, it was most likely carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe, the Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60% of Europe's total population.[7] In total, the plague may have reduced the world population from an estimated 450 million down to 350–375 million in the 14th century.[8] The world population as a whole did not recover to pre-plague levels until the 17th century.[9] The plague recurred occasionally in Europe until the 19th century. The plague created a series of religious, social, and economic upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of European history.

27,581 Indians died in railway accidents in 2014 A total of 27,581 Indians died in 2014 in railway related accidents, the latest data by the National Crime Records Bureau shows.

"The driver did not stop the vehicle at the stop board of level crossing to check for approaching train as prescribed in the section 131 of Motor Vehicle Act 1988," he said. He announced an ex-gratia of Rs 2 lakh each to the next of kin of the school children and others who were killed in the accident.

And in May at least 20 people were killed when a passenger train derailed and hit a stationary goods train in Uttar Pradesh state.

The Medak District bus-train collision took place on the morning of 24 July 2014 at Masyapet in the Medak district of Telangana state in India. A bus ferrying at least 40 children to school collided with the Nanded-Hyderabad train at an unmanned level crossing.[1] Sixteen students, aged between three and fourteen, the bus driver and the cleaner were killed in the accident.[2] Twenty other children were taken to hospital in Kompally, near Hyderabad. Early reports said that the bus driver, Bhikshapati Goud, was on his cellphone at the time of the collision.

In last five years, 723 people were killed in accidents at level crossings. Around 95 people were killed in accidents on unmanned crossings in 2013-14 while 124 people lost there lives in 2012-13. The figure was 204 in 2011-12.

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.[1] Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a retransmitter of the values of the Zhou dynasty golden age of several centuries before.[2] In the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang-Lao, as the official ideology while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism. The disintegration of the Han political order in the second century CE opened the way for the doctrines of Buddhism and Neo-Taoism, which offered spiritual explanations lacking in Confucianism. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty of 618-907. In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (960-1297). The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. The New Culture intellectuals of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses. They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings; some of these new ideologies include the "Three Principles of the People" with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then Maoism under the People's Republic of China. In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy.[3] With particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values,[4] the core of Confucianism is humanistic.[5] According to Herbert Fingarette's concept of "the secular as sacred", Confucianism regards the ordinary activities of human life — and especially in human relationships as a manifestation of the sacred,[6] because they are the expression of our moral nature (xìng 性), which has a transcendent anchorage in Heaven (Tiān 天) and a proper respect for the spirits or gods (shén).[7] While Tiān has some characteristics that overlap the category of deity, it is primarily an impersonal absolute principle, like the Dào (道) or the Brahman. Confucianism focuses on the practical order that is given by a this-worldly awareness of the Tiān.[8][9] Confucian liturgy (that is called 儒 rú, or sometimes 正統/正统 zhèngtǒng, meaning "orthoprax" ritual style) led by Confucian priests or "sages of rites" (禮生/礼生 lǐshēng) to worship the gods in public and ancestral Chinese temples is preferred in various occasions, by Confucian religious groups and for civil religious rites, over Taoist or popular ritual.[10]

A portrait of Confucius by the Tang dynasty artist Wu Daozi (680–740)

Confucius (/kənˈfjuːʃəs/; September 28, 551 BC – 479 BC)[1][2] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known in the West as Confucianism. Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death. Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor veneration, and respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", the Golden Rule. Confucius is also a traditional deity in Daoism.

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Sarcophaga nodosa, a species of flesh fly feeding on decaying meat.

Scavengers are typically not thought to be detritivores, as they generally eat large quantities of organic matter, but both detritivores and scavengers are specific cases of consumer-resource systems.[2] The eating of wood, whether alive or dead, is known as xylophagy. Τhe activity of animals feeding only on dead wood is called sapro-xylophagy and those animals, sapro-xylophagous.

Detritivores are an important aspect of many ecosystems. They can live on any soil with an organic component, including marine ecosystems, where they are termed interchangeably with bottom feeders. Typical detritivorous animals include millipedes, springtails, woodlice, dung flies, slugs, many terrestrial worms, sea stars, sea cucumbers, fiddler crabs, and some sedentary polychaetes such as amphitrites (Amphitritinae, worms of the family Terebellidae) and other terebellids.

Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).[1] There are many kinds of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants that carry out coprophagy. By doing so, all these detritivores contribute to decomposition and the nutrient cycles. They should be distinguished from other decomposers, such as many species of bacteria, fungi and protists, which are unable to ingest discrete lumps of matter, but instead live by absorbing and metabolizing on a molecular scale (saprotrophic nutrition). However, the terms detritivore and decomposer are often used interchangeably.

Scavenging or Saprophagy is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.[1] The eating of carrion from the same species is referred to as cannibalism. Scavengers play an important role in the ecosystem by consuming the dead animal and plant material. Decomposers and detritivores complete this process, by consuming the remains left by scavengers.

Ululation. Let me quote this: Among the Lakota, women yell lililili! in a high-pitched voice to praise warriors for acts of valor. See. Warriors. Jungle Warfare. Communication. Vital eh? Time-critical eh? Why? Niner? Why not just simply say Nine? No mis-hearing? Yep. Something like that. Every culture has it. Acoustics? Yep. Golconda Fort. Hyderabad. India. Same thing. Element? AIR? Radio Waves? Water? Fire? What's fire? A make-shift ad hoc air strip in the real rain forests of real bad guys eh? Selling drugs? Drug lord's lair? Phantom tribes -- they communicate with drums -- This is also a tribe -- they communicate with this -- Jungle Warfare -- Embedded in Arab Culture -- Get the Zippo! Yep. Bruce Willis. This is a sign Zippo is around. Where. There. Two shrill sounds. Our shirll? Yep. They can't mimic it. Got it. Two steps? Yep. Jungle. It's our jungle. Hunt the Cave Dweller. Okay. Bats. Guests. What's that? How do you communicate and navigate? This is me: Net-Esccape Navigator. CC. CopyCat. Copy Con Filename.Ext Bad command or filename.

Prannoy Roy is Jonathan Livingston Seagull. The Reluctant Messiah. Richard Bach warned us about in the early 70s. Watch out for him. On our regular Telly. Or any media. That's journalism. Think tank. What's that eh? Who's he anyway? He's Mister Ubiquitous -- even when the remote control is with your wife -- Go turn the Telly off -- or, could you switch to Cricket Buzz? A name that hasn't become. Yep. It's always been so -- a synonym -- that thwarts -- all the unsolicited, paparazzi-ish rumormongering -- masquerading as Indian Journalism. The Journalist's Creed? He never took the oath. Never, yep. Never. Did Wright Brothers have a FLying License eh? Nope. Then. Nothing. Commericial break. Let's get going. Where To? Remote Control. Let's watch a movie. Over My Dead Body. Horror? Sequel? Prequel? By the way, did I get the spelling of Wright -- right? Yeah, right?

Phantom tribes -- they communicate with drums -- This is also a tribe -- they communicate with this -- Jungle Warfare -- Embedded in Arab Culture -- Get the Zippo! Yep. Bruce Willis. This is a sign Zippo is around. Where. There. Two shrill sounds. Our shirll? Yep. They can't mimic it. Got it. Two steps? Yep. Jungle. It's our jungle. Hunt the Cave Dweller. Okay. Bats. Guests. What's that? How do you communicate and navigate? This is me: Net-Esccape Navigator. CC. CopyCat. Copy Con Filename.Ext Bad command or filename.

Among the Lakota, women yell lililili! in a high-pitched voice to praise warriors for acts of valor.[

Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina[1]) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae /haɪˈɛnᵻdiː/. With only four extant species, it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora, and one of the smallest in the class Mammalia.[2] Despite their low diversity, hyenas are unique and vital components of most African ecosystems.[3] Although phylogenetically they are closer to felines and viverrids, hyenas are behaviourally and morphologically similar to canines in several aspects; both hyenas and canines are non-arboreal, cursorial hunters that catch prey with their teeth rather than claws. Both eat food quickly and may store it, and their calloused feet with large, blunt, nonretractable nails are adapted for running and making sharp turns. However, the hyenas' grooming, scent marking, defecating habits, mating, and parental behaviour are consistent with the behaviour of other feliforms.[4] Spotted hyenas may kill as many as 95% of the animals they eat,[5] while striped hyenas are largely scavengers.[6] Generally, hyenas are known to drive off larger predators, like lions, from their kills, despite having a reputation in popular culture for being cowardly.[6] Hyenas are primarily nocturnal animals, but sometimes venture from their lairs in the early-morning hours. With the exception of the highly social spotted hyena, hyenas are generally not gregarious animals, though they may live in family groups and congregate at kills.[7] Hyenas first arose in Eurasia during the Miocene period from viverrid-like ancestors, and diversified into two distinct types: lightly built dog-like hyenas and robust bone-crushing hyenas. Although the dog-like hyenas thrived 15 million years ago (with one taxon having colonised North America), they became extinct after a change in climate along with the arrival of canids into Eurasia. Of the dog-like hyena lineage, only the insectivorous aardwolf survived, while the bone-crushing hyenas (including the extant spotted, brown and striped hyenas) became the undisputed top scavengers of Eurasia and Africa.[8] Hyenas feature prominently in the folklore and mythology of human cultures with which they are sympatric. Hyenas are commonly viewed as frightening and worthy of contempt, and are associated with witchcraft, because their body parts are used as ingredients in traditional medicine. In some cultures, hyenas are thought to influence people’s spirits, rob graves, and steal livestock and children.[9]

Ululation appears in many films set in the Middle East, such as Lawrence of Arabia and The Battle of Algiers and Lion of the Desert. Sometimes it is depicted as a battle cry, for example in Xena: Warrior Princess. Even the animated feature G.I. Joe: The Movie featured the ululation "Cobra-la-la-la-la-la". It appears as comic relief in The Simpsons episodes "The Last Temptation of Homer" and "Midnight Rx"; as well as on Family Guy in the episode "E. Peterbus Unum" where Stewie is curious about the sound Achmed "makes when you're about to assassinate an infidel". Further, Peter learns how to do this in "Turban Cowboy". In the film Get Him to the Greek, during the threesome scene, Russell Brand "ululates" the girl. The word also appears in the book Lord of the Flies[29] as a way in which Sam and Eric could warn the other members of Jack's tribe of the coming beast or other intruders. The word ululation is used in H. G. Wells's War of the Worlds to describe a sound that the Martians make during battle.

In Ancient Egypt, reference to ululation appears on the inscription of the pyramid texts of Unas, on the West Wall of the Corridor (section XIII),[18] and of Pepi I, in the Spells for Entering the Akhet.[19] In ancient Greece ululation or ololuge was normally used as a joyful expression[20] to celebrate good news[21] or when an animal's throat is cut during sacrifice.[22] However, in Aeschylus' Agamemnon, along with being an expression of joy, it is also used for fury,[21] and in Sophocles' Electra it is employed as an expression of grief.[20] As in many cultures, use depended on context, as ululated exclamations could appear in different circumstances as a cry of lament or as a battle-cry.[23] Homer mentions ololuge (ululation) in his works,[24][25] as does Herodotus, citing ululation in North Africa – where it is still practiced – saying: I think for my part that the loud cries uttered in our sacred rites came also from thence; for the Libyan women are greatly given to such cries and utter them very sweetly.[26] Or in another translation: I also think that the ololuge or cry of praise emitted during the worship of Athena started in Libya, because it is often employed by Libyan women, who do it extremely well.[27][28]

Ululation is practiced either alone or as part of certain styles of singing, on various occasions of communal ritual events (like for example weddings) used to express strong emotion. Ululation is commonly practised in most of Africa, the Middle East and Central-to-South Asia. It occurs a few places in Europe, like Serbia, Cyprus, Malta and parts of Spain. It likewise takes place among the diaspora community originating from these areas. Ululation also occurs among Mizrahi Jews at all joyous occasions such as at a hachnasat sefer Torah (the dedication of a Torah scroll), circumcisions,[4] communal celebrations, weddings,[5][6] bar mitzvah[7] celebrations, and most of all at henna celebrations.[8] The cultural practice has spread to other Jews, particularly where members of different Jewish ethnic communities come together, and is also to be found among American Jews.[citation needed] The Hebrew word for ululation is "tsahalulim" (Hebrew: צהלולים). Recordings of various styles of ululations are commonly found in the music of artists performing Mizrahi styles of music. In Morocco it is known as barwalá or youyou.[5][9] Ululation is commonly used in Middle Eastern Weddings and funerals. In the Middle East, zaghārīt (Arabic: زغاريت) is a ululation performed to honor someone. An example of the incorporation of ululations in traditional wedding songs can be found in Zaghareed, a collection of Palestinian traditional wedding songs reinterpreted and re-arranged by Mohsen Subhi and produced in 1997 by the Palestinian National Music and Dance Troupe (El Funoun).[10] In Ethiopia and Eritrea, ululation (called ililta) is part of a religious ritual performed by worshippers as a feature of Sunday or other services in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church[11] and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. And it is also randomly (spontaneously) uttered during secular celebrations such as parties or concerts. Elsewhere in Africa ululation is used as a cheer, mourn or attention seeking sound by women. In Hausa ululation is called guda, , sigalagala and in Zulu lilizela in Tsonga nkulungwani and in Shona kupururudza. Ululation is incorporated into African musical styles such as Shona music, where it is a form of audience participation, along with clapping and call-and-response. In Tanzania ululation is a celebratory cheer sound when good news has been shared or during weddings, welcoming of a newborn home, graduations and other festivals even in church when sermons are going on. In Swahili it is known as vigelele and in Luo dialect it is known as udhalili. Generally women exuberantly yell lililili in a high-pitched voices. Female children are usually proud of being able to ululate like their mothers and aunts. Ululation is also widely practiced in the eastern parts of India, where it is also known as Ululudhvani. People, especially women roll their tongues and produce this sound during all Hindu temple rituals, festivals and celebrations. This is also an integral part of most weddings in these parts where, depending upon the local usages, women ululate to welcome the groom or bride or both. Bengalis call it ulu-uli and they use this during weddings and other festivals. Odias call it Hulahuli or Huluhuli.[12] [13] In Odisha ululation is used to cheer during weddings, cultural gatherings and celebrations. [14] Assamese call it uruli. In Tamil it is known as kulavai (Tamil:குளவை). In Kerala, ululation is essential for all ceremonial occasions and the term used in Malayalam is kurava. Ululation is used to some extent by south European women[3] The Basque irrintzi is a signal of happiness originating from shepherds[15][16] The Galician aturuxo is performed with accompanied vocalization from the throat. Ululation is rooted in the culture of Eastern Africa as well as Southern Africa and is widely practiced in Tanzania, Kenya,Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Ethiopia, Somalia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It is used by women to give praises at weddings and all other celebrations. It is a general sound of good cheer and celebration, when good news has been delivered in a place of gathering, even in church. It is also an integral part of most African weddings where women gather around the bride and groom, dancing and ululating exuberantly. During graduation ceremonies ululation shows pride and joy in scholastic achievement. The women ululating usually stand and make their way to the front to dance and ululate around the graduate. Among the Lakota, women yell lililili! in a high-pitched voice to praise warriors for acts of valor.[17]

Ululation (pronunciation: Listeni/ˌjuːljᵿˈleɪʃən, ˌʌl-/[1][2]), from Latin ululo, is a long, wavering, high-pitched vocal sound resembling a howl with a trilling quality. It is produced by emitting a high pitched loud voice accompanied with a rapid back and forth movement of the tongue and the uvula.[3][page needed]

Exclusive: The First Indian Air Force Women Who Went Into A War Zone

Exclusive: The First Indian Air Force Women Who Went Into A War Zone
All India | Written by Vishnu Som | Updated: July 23, 2016 22:06 IST

NEW DELHI:  It's a story that has been forgotten in the fanfare of India's first women fighter pilots being commissioned into the Indian Air Force earlier this year.

India's first women combat aviators went into a war zone 17 years ago, during the Kargil War. And while Flight Lieutenant Gunjan Saxena and Flight Lieutenant Srividya Rajan never flew fighter jets, they did fly through an area where Pakistani soldiers fired bullets and missiles at virtually any Indian helicopter or aircraft that they could spot. Their tiny Cheetah helicopter was unarmed and entirely defenceless against enemy fire. And yet, like so many of their male counterparts, the two young women soldiered on, flying dozens of sorties directly in harm's way during the 1999 war in North Kashmir.

Back then, women pilots were still new in the Indian Air Force and there was always a sense that they had to work extra-hard to prove to be equal to their male counterparts.

Gunjan said as much when we interviewed her 17 years ago in Udhampur, "I mean this was a very new thing for the Air Force - to see women pilots working with them, flying with them every day. So they used to see us to see if we would be able to cope with the conditions and the stresses that you face."

Both Gunjan and Srividya performed brilliantly. Tasked with casualty evacuations and spotting Pakistani positions in the Kargil region, the two pilots often flew very close to Pakistani positions albeit at a height which they believed would be beyond the range of Pakistan gunners. One day, Gunjan's chopper came under direct attack while it was positioned at the Kargil airstrip. A Pakistani soldier had fired either a rocket or a shoulder fired missile directly at her aircraft. The weapon missed her chopper thudding into the hillside behind her. Not deterred in the least, Gunjan continued her operational sorties carrying a fully loaded INSAS rifle and a revolver with her in any mission. If she had a crash landing close to Pakistani Army positions, she would fight her way out of trouble or would go down fighting. Just like her brother, an Indian Army officer who happened to be fighting in the Kargil War at the same time.

Today, 17 years later, Gunjan tells us that missions where she evacuated injured Indian Army soldiers were her biggest motivation during Kargil. "I think it is the ultimate feeling that you can ever have as a helicopter pilot. That was one of our main roles there - casualty evacuation. I would say it's a very satisfying feeling when you save a life because that is what you're there for," she said.

Flight Lieutenant Gunjan Saxena never had the opportunities that young women in the IAF now have. As a short service commissioned officer, her tenure ended after seven years. But her association with the IAF has never ended. Married to an Indian Air Force Mi-17 helicopter pilot, Gunjan says it's wonderful that women pilots can get a permanent commission now - "I think inducting women in the fighter stream is a very, very big and a positive step on part of the Air Force. Being a pioneer, I would say, it feels great and I would only say that I hope these women who've come into the fighter stream now give their 100 per cent and really, really touch the sky with glory."

Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning)[1] is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food,[2] as well as chemical or natural toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes. Symptoms vary depending on the cause, and are described below in this article. A few broad generalizations can be made, e.g.: The incubation period ranges from hours to days, depending on the cause and on how much was consumed. The incubation period tends to cause sufferers to not associate the symptoms with the item consumed, and so to cause sufferers to attribute the symptoms to gastroenteritis for example. Symptoms often include vomiting, fever, and aches, and may include diarrhea. Bouts of vomiting can be repeated with an extended delay in between, because even if infected food was eliminated from the stomach in the first bout, microbes (if applicable) can pass through the stomach into the intestine via cells lining the intestinal walls and begin to multiply. Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade deeper body tissues.

Spartan Packet Radio Experiment - An experiment intended to test the tracking of satellites via amateur packet radio, flown on Space Shuttle mission STS-72. I wish that our young generation: Guys and Girls -- come up with such explorative learning brainchilds -- instead of: slandering, substance abuse, bullying et cetra. Revive the BBS culture. Internet is like an ocean. Sometimes, all you need a swimming pool. Run BBS on Telnet. There're Telnet-able BBS software. Such BBSes are still active. Look 'em up. Galcaticomm's World Group Server and its Client App. 1990s? Could you imagine that eh? Tim Syrker. He committed suicide. I look up to him. He's my Guru. And, my friend and Guru -- Who not only taught me American English but SysOp-ing is Dennis Hurd. He used to Teach English at Higher Colleges of Technology, Dubai, UAE. The Electronic Forum BBS. That's his brainchild. And, the college management let him get all the software and hardware and associated resources. He changed the way we communicate. He's still my friend. On my facebook. We never chat. LOL He created an English learning forum for me on the BBS. And, revoked BBS access of a rookie bbs hacker when I logged his threats to hack me and all his other exploits and E-mailed that .txt file to Dennis.

I always wanted to SysOp and explore Packet Radio-based BBSes.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) -- Dial Up -- model type BBS -- I SysOp-ed apart from running a regular BBS. In the 1990s. My BBS friends and I used to interact like that; Plus, it's my Remote Access Server too meaning I used to login on to my BBS from my work place and access files and all that and E-mail my friends or chat with 'em. Et Cetra.

FBB (F6FBB) – packet radio BBS system, still in use

A bulletin board system, or BBS, is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software and data, reading news and bulletins, and exchanging messages with other users through email, public message boards, and sometimes via direct chatting. Many BBSes also offer on-line games, in which users can compete with each other, and BBSes with multiple phone lines often provide chat rooms, allowing users to interact with each other. Bulletin board systems were in many ways a precursor to the modern form of the World Wide Web, social networks and other aspects of the Internet. Low-cost, high-performance modems drove the use of online services and BBSes through the early 1990s. Infoworld estimated there were 60,000 BBSes serving 17 million users in the United States alone in 1994, a collective market much larger than major online services like CompuServe. The introduction of inexpensive dial-up internet service and the Mosaic web browser offered ease of use and global access that BBS and online systems did not provide, and led to a rapid crash in the market starting in 1994. Over the next year, many of the leading BBS software providers went bankrupt and tens of thousands of BBSes disappeared. Today, BBSing survives largely as a nostalgic hobby in most parts of the world, but it is still an extremely popular form of communication for Taiwanese youth (see PTT Bulletin Board System) and in China.[1] Most BBSes are now accessible over Telnet and typically offer free email accounts, FTP services, IRC and all of the protocols commonly used on the Internet. Some offer access through packet switched networks, or packet radio connections.

The Internet is a global network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. It operates without a central governing body.

A portmanteau (Listeni/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/, /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/; plural portmanteaus or portmanteaux /-ˈtoʊz/) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,[1] in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word,[1][2][3] as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[2][4] or motel, from motor and hotel.[5] In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes.[6][7][8][9] The definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept which the portmanteau describes. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is a compound, not a portmanteau, of star and fish; whereas a hypothetical portmanteau of star and fish might be stish.

But if the man was evil, they say: ‘Come out O evil soul that was in an evil body. Come out blameworthy and receive the tidings of boiling water and dirty wound discharges, and other torments of similar kind, all together [cf. Saad 38:58]. And this is repeated until it comes out, then it is taken up to heaven and it is not opened for it. And it is said: ‘No welcome to the evil soul that was in an evil body. Go back blameworthy, for the gates of heaven will not be opened to you.’ So it is sent back down from heaven, then it goes to the grave.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.

“Say: None in the heavens and the earth knows the Ghaib (unseen) except Allah” [an-Naml 27:65].

Praise be to Allaah.

The sorcerer and charlatan may be recognized by a number of things, among the most important of which is: his claim to know the unseen; even if he does not state that clearly, you will find that he speaks of matters of the unseen which may all be lies and falsehood. Some of what he says may come true but most of it will be lies, but the lies will be overlooked because of the few things that come true. Similarly, there will be a lack of righteousness, for you will not find them to be keen to worship. They are often exposed, especially in their lies, and in matters that have to do with women. It often comes to light that they have committed haraam actions involving women, such as being alone with them, or touching women using the excuse of healing.                                                                              

Shaykh Sa’d al-Humayd.

Another sign of the fortunetellers, sorcerers and soothsayers is that they will ask for the name of the person who has come to them; they often use bukhoor (incense) and strange materials; they may write Qur’aan with impure substances and menstrual blood; they may ask a person to offer a sacrifice to someone other than Allaah; they use large rings; they may not do ghusl after janaabah (impurity following sexual activity); they may mutter strange and mysterious words; they may use secret signs and charms; they may pretend to recite Qur’aan in the beginning to deceive the person who has come to them.

We ask Allaah to protect us from their tricks, for He is the Best of protectors and the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.

Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

“Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibraaheem (Abraham) about his Lord (Allaah), because Allaah had given him the kingdom? When Ibraaheem (Abraham) said (to him): ‘My Lord (Allaah) is He Who gives life and causes death.’ He said, ‘I give life and cause death.’ Ibraaheem (Abraham) said, ‘Verily, Allaah brings the sun from the east; then bring it you from the west.’ So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allaah guides not the people, who are Zaalimoon (wrongdoers)” [al-Baqarah 2:258]

Ethnic groups (2015): 27.15% Indian; 12.53% Pakistani; 11.32% Emirati; 7.31% Bangladeshi; 3.13% Sri Lankan; 38.6% others

Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow (now called Fellowcraft), and Master Mason. These are the degrees offered by Craft (or Blue Lodge) Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, and are usually administered by different bodies than the craft degrees. The basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are usually supervised and governed at the regional level (usually coterminous with either a state, province, or national border) by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient. There is no international, worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry; each Grand Lodge is independent, and they do not necessarily recognise each other as being legitimate. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a supreme being, that no women are admitted, and that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the "liberal" jurisdictions who have removed some, or all, of these restrictions.

John Donne[edit] Izaak Walton claimed that John Donne, the English metaphysical poet, saw his wife's doppelgänger in 1612 in Paris, on the same night as the stillbirth of their daughter. Two days after their arrival there, Mr. Donne was left alone, in that room in which Sir Robert, and he, and some other friends had dined together. To this place Sir Robert returned within half an hour; and, as he left, so he found Mr. Donne alone; but, in such ecstasy, and so altered as to his looks, as amazed Sir Robert to behold him in so much that he earnestly desired Mr. Donne to declare befallen him in the short time of his absence? to which, Mr. Donne was not able to make a present answer: but, after a long and perplext pause, did at last say, I have seen a dreadful Vision since I saw you: I have seen my dear wife pass twice by me through this room, with her hair hanging about her shoulders, and a dead child in her arms: this, I have seen since I saw you. To which, Sir Robert replied; Sure Sir, you have slept since I saw you; and, this is the result of some melancholy dream, which I desire you to forget, for you are now awake. To which Mr. Donnes reply was: I cannot be surer that I now live, then that I have not slept since I saw you: and am, as sure, that at her second appearing, she stopped, looked me in the face, and vanished.[6] This account first appears in the edition of Life of Dr. John Donne published in 1675, and is attributed to "a Person of Honour... told with such circumstances, and such asseveration, that... I verily believe he that told it me, did himself believe it to be true. "At the time Donne was indeed extremely worried about his pregnant wife, and was going through severe illness himself. However, R. C. Bald points out that Walton's account "is riddled with inaccuracies. He says that Donne crossed from London to Paris with the Drurys in twelve days, and that the vision occurred two days later; the servant sent to London to make inquiries found Mrs. Donne still confined to her bed in Drury House. Actually, of course, Donne did not arrive in Paris until more than three months after he left England, and his wife was not in London but in the Isle of Wight. The still-born child was buried on 24 January.... Yet as late as 14 April Donne in Paris was still ignorant of his wife's ordeal."[7] In January, Donne was still at Amiens. His letters do not support the story as given.[8]

A doppelgänger or doppelga(e)nger (/ˈdɒpəlˌɡɛŋə/ or /-ˌɡæŋə/; German: [ˈdɔpəlˌɡɛŋɐ] ( listen), literally "double-goer") is a look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a paranormal phenomenon, and is usually seen as a harbinger of bad luck. In other traditions and stories, they recognize one's 'double-goer' as an evil twin. Doppelgänger is a German word. The word 'doppelgänger' is often used in a more general sense to describe any person who physically or behaviorally resembles another person.

Maria was born in Coimbra on 15 October 1527 and was one of the few children of John III to survive childhood. In her youth, Maria received a humanistic education that was considered typical for a princess of her time.[2] She married her cousin Philip on 12 November 1543 at Salamanca.[3] She gave birth to their son Don Carlos on 8 July 1545, but died four days later due to a haemorrhage[4] in Valladolid.

Praise be to Allaah.

The fear prayer is prescribed in the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in As‑Salaah (the prayer), let one party of them stand up [in Salaah (prayer)] with you taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allaah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers”

[al-Nisa’ 4:102]

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) led his companions in offering this prayer on a number of occasions, in different ways.

Imam Ahmad said: There are six or seven proven ahaadeeth concerning the fear prayer; whichever of them a person does, it is permissible.

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

There are six basic ways, but some scholars said there were more, because every time they saw a different report by the narrators, they counted that as another way in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did it, whereas these are variations in the reports of the narrators. End quote. Al-Haafiz said: This is the correct view.

The way in which the fear prayer is done differs according to the severity of the fear and the location of the enemy – whether they are in the direction of the qiblah or some other direction.

The leader or imam should choose the version that is most suited to the situation and is most likely to serve the purpose, which is to ensure that the prayer is performed whilst guarding against the enemy, so that they will not attack the Muslims and catch them unawares whilst they are praying.

Al-Khattaabi said: There are different types of the fear prayer which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) offered on different occasions and in different ways, and the way in which it is to be done is to choose the best way that will ensure that the prayer is performed with the utmost vigilance.

End quote from Sharh Muslim by al-Nawawi.

 Secondly: when it was first prescribed

It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: We went out with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to fight some people from Juhaynah, and they fought us fiercely. When we prayed Zuhr, the mushrikeen said: If we had attacked them then, we would have finished them off. Jibreel informed the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) about that, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us about it. He said: They said: There will come to them a prayer that is dearer to them than their children. When the time for ‘Asr came, we formed two rows, and the mushrikeen were between us and the qiblah … Then he stated that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) led them in offering the fear prayer. Narrated by Muslim, 840


Here it will be sufficient for us to describe some of the ways in which it is offered.

1 – If the enemy is in a direction other than the qiblah: the leader should divide the army into two groups, one which will pray with him and another which will face the enemy lest they attack the Muslims. He should lead the first group in praying one rak’ah, then when he stands up for the second rak'ah they should complete the prayer by themselves, i.e., they should intend to pray alone and complete the prayer by themselves, whilst the imam remains standing. Then when they have completed the prayer by themselves, they should go and stand where the second group was, facing the enemy, and the second group should come and join the imam in the second rak’ah. In this case the imam should make the second rak’ah longer than the first, so that the second group may catch up with him. So the second group should join the imam and he should lead them in the remaining rak’ah, then he should sit to recite the tashahhud. When he sits to recite the tashahhud, this group should get up immediately after prostrating and complete the remaining rak’ah, then catch up with the imam for the tashahhud, after which he should lead them in saying the salaam. This version is in accordance with the apparent meaning of the Qur’aan, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in As‑Salaah (the prayer), let one party of them stand up [in Salaah (prayer)] with you taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you taking all the precautions and bearing arms.”

[al-Nisa’ 4:102]

 al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 4/298

al-Bukhaari (413) and Muslim (842) narrated from Maalik, from Yazeed ibn Rumaan, from Saalih ibn Khawwaat from one who saw the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the day of Dhaat al-Riqaa’ when he offered the fear prayer, that one group formed rows with him, and another group faced the enemy. He led those who were with him in praying one rak’ah, then he remained standing and they completed the prayer by themselves. Then they moved away and faced the enemy, and the other group came. He led them in praying the remaining rak’ah, then he remained sitting and they completed the prayer by themselves, then he said the tasleem with them.

Maalik said: This is best that I have heard concerning the fear prayer.

2 – If the enemy is in the direction of the qiblah, then the imam should form them into two rows and start leading all of them in prayer, bowing with all of them and standing up with all of them, then when he prostrates the first row only should prostrate with him and the second row should remain standing, keeping guard. When he stands up, the first row should stand with him and the back row should prostrate. Then when they stand up, the back row should move forward and the front row should move backward, then he should lead them all in the second rak’ah, standing and bowing with all of them, then when he prostrates the row which moved forward, which was in the back during the first rak'ah, should prostrate with him, then when he sits to recite the tashahhud the back row should prostrate. When they sit to recite the tashahhud the imam should say the tasleem with all of them.  This can only be done when the enemy is in the direction of the qiblah.

Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 4/300

Muslim (840) narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:  I was present during the fear prayer with the Messenger of Allaah (S). We formed two rows, one row behind the Messenger of Allaah (S), and the enemy was between us and the qiblah. The Messenger of Allaah (S) said takbeer and we all said takbeer. Then he bowed and we all bowed. Then he raised his head from bowing and we all raised our heads. Then he and the row that was directly behind him went down in prostration, and the back row remained standing, facing the enemy. When the Prophet (S) had finished prostrating, the row that was directly behind him stood up, and the back row went down in prostration and then stood up. Then the back row went forward and the front row moved back. Then the Prophet (S) bowed and we all bowed, then he raised his head from bowing and we all raised our heads. Then he and the row that was directly behind him, that had been in the back during the first rak’ah, went down in prostration, and the back row remained standing, facing the enemy.  When the Prophet and the row that was directly behind him had finished prostrating, the back row went down in prostration. Then the Prophet (S) said the tasleem and we all did likewise

3 – If the fear is intense, and the imam cannot form the Muslims into rows and lead them in prayer in congregation. This is when the two sides are in the thick of battle and the fighting is intense.

In this case, each Muslim should pray by himself, as he is fighting, whether he is walking on foot, or riding, facing the qiblah or not. He should gesture for bowing and prostrating, making the prostration lower than the bowing.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And if you fear (an enemy), perform Salaah (pray) on foot or riding”

[al-Baqarah 2:239]

al-Sa’di said (p. 109):

“on foot” means walking. “riding” means on horseback or camelback or any other kind of mount. In this case it is not necessary to face towards the qiblah. This prayer is exempt because of fear. End quote.

Al-Bukhaari (943) narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If they are more than that, then let them pray standing and riding.”

Al-Haafiz said:

“If they are more than that” refers to the enemy. What is meant is that if fear is intense and the enemy is great in number and there is the fear of dividing the Muslims, then in that case it is permissible to pray however one can, and it is permissible to omit the pillars or essential parts of the prayer that one cannot do. So he should move from standing to bowing, and from bowing to prostrating, by means of gestures etc. This is the view of the majority. End quote.

Al-Tabari narrated that Ibn ‘Umar said: When fighting breaks out, then (the prayer) is just dhikr and gesturing with the head.

Al-Bukhaari (4535) narrated from Naafi’ that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) described the fear prayer, then he said:

If the fear was more intense than that, then they prayed on foot, standing on their feet, or riding, facing the qiblah or not facing the qiblah. Naafi’ said: I do not think that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar narrated that except from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

 Al-Haafiz said:

 The point is that there is a difference of opinion concerning the words, “if the fear was more intense than that” – is this attributable to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or is it the word of Ibn ‘Umar? The correct view is that it is attributable to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). End quote.

It says in al-Muntaqa Sharh al-Muwatta’:

“If the fear was more intense than that” means: a case of fear in which it is not possible to stand in one spot or to form rows. So they prayed on foot. That is because fear is of two types: one of which is when it is possible to stand still and form rows, but there is the fear that the enemy may attack whilst the Muslims are busy with the prayer.

The second type of fear is that in which it is not possible to stand in one spot or form rows, such as when under attack by the enemy. In this case each person should pray as best he can, on foot or riding. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And if you fear (an enemy), perform Salaah (pray) on foot or riding”

[al-Baqarah 2:239]

End quote.


Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (4/300):

But if someone were to say: What if we assume that the ways narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cannot be applied nowadays, because the methods of warfare have changed?

We say: If it is necessary to pray at a time of fear of the enemy, they should pray in the manner that is closest to the ways narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), if the ways that are narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cannot be followed, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can”

[al-Taghaabun 64:16]

end quote.

Islam Q&A
Praise be to Allaah.
This question may be asked in two ways, either as an objection or as a quest for understanding. If it is asked as an objection, then it is an indication of the questioner’s ignorance. For the wisdom of Allaah is too great for our minds to comprehend. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And they ask you (O Muhammad) concerning the Rooh (the spirit). Say: The Rooh (the spirit) is one of the things, the knowledge of which is only with my Lord. And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little”[al-Isra’ 17:85]

This spirit is something which is within us and is the very essence of our lives, but we do not know it and the philosophers and thinkers are unable to define and describe it. If we are unable to know anything about this spirit, which is the closest thing in creation to us, apart from that which has been described in the Qur’aan and Sunnah, then what do you think about other matters beyond that? Allaah is Most Wise, Most Great, Most Majestic and Most Powerful, and we must submit to His will and decree with full submission, because we are unable to comprehend the ultimate goals of His wisdom. On this basis, the answer to the question is that we should say: Allaah knows best and He is Most Wise, Most Powerful and Most Great.

If the question is asked as a quest for understanding, then we would tell this questioner: the believer is subjected to tests and Allaah’s testing him by means of things that may harm or hurt him brings two great benefits. The first benefit is that Allaah tests this man with regard to his faith, to see whether his faith is sincere or shaky. The believer whose faith is sincere will patiently accept the will and decree of Allaah, and will seek reward from Him. In this case the matter becomes bearable for him. It was narrated that one of the female worshippers of Allaah suffered a cut or wound in her finger, but she did not complain about the pain or show any sign of distress. She was asked about that and she said: The sweetness of its reward makes me forget the bitterness of bearing it. The believer seeks reward from Allaah and submits to Him completely. This is one benefit.

With regard to the second benefit, Allaah highly praises those who are patient and says that He is with them and that He will give them reward without measure. Patience is a high status which can only be attained by those who are tested with things that they bear patiently. If he bears them patiently, he attains this high status which brings great reward. So when Allaah tests the believers with things that hurt them, that is so that they may attain the status of those who are patient. Hence the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who was the greatest of all people in faith, piety and fear of Allaah, suffered twice the pain of an ordinary man when he fell sick, and he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) suffered greatly at the time of death, so that he might fully attain the status of one who is patient, for he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was the most patient of those who are patient. Hence the wisdom behind Allaah’s testing of the believer with such calamities becomes clear.

With regard to His giving the sinners, evildoers, immoral people and kaafirs good health and plentiful provision, this is in order to let them get carried away (with their sin, and then punish them severely later on). It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “This world is a prison for the believer and a paradise for the kaafir. They are given these good things so that they have their good things sooner, in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will get what they deserve of punishment. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“On the Day when those who disbelieve (in the Oneness of Allaah Islamic Monotheism) will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein. Now this Day you shall be recompensed with a torment of humiliation, because you were arrogant in the land without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allaah’s Command (disobey Allaah)”

[al-Ahqaaf 46:20]

The point is that this world is for the kaafirs to get carried away in, then when they move to the Hereafter and leave the life of this world in which they found pleasure, they will encounter torment – we seek refuge with Allaah. The punishment will be so much harder for them because they will suffer greatly, and because at the same time they will have lost the delights and luxuries of this world which they loved so much.

There is a third benefit which we may add to the first two, which the believer will get from sickness and problems, for the believer will move to a realm that is better than this world, for he will move from something that hurts him and causes him pain to something that will bring him happiness and joy. So his joy at the delight to which he has come will be multiplied, because he has attained joy, and the pain and difficulties that he was facing will have ceased.

From the fatwas of Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, from Kitaab Fataawa Islamiyyah, 1/83.

Jinn Entering Human Bodies

Praise be to Allah

The fact that jinn can enter human bodies is proven in the Quran and Sunnah (prophetic teachings), and by the consensus of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah (main body of Muslims who are united upon the sunnah), and by real-life events. No one disputes this apart from the M’utazilah (a deviant sect) who give priority to their own rational analysis over the evidence of the Quran and Sunnah. We will mention a little about this below:

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Those who eat riba (interest) will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaytan leading him to insanity. That is because they say: ‘Trading is only like Riba’…” [2:275]

Al-Qurtubi said in his Tafseer (exegesis): “This ayah (verse) is proof that those people are wrong who deny that epilepsy is caused by the jinn and claim that its causes are only physical, and that the Shaytan does not enter people or cause madness.”

Ibn Katheer said in his Tafseer, after mentioning the ayah quoted above: “They will not rise from their graves on the Day of Resurrection except like the way in which the epileptic rises during his seizure, when he is beaten by the Shaytan. This is because they will rise in a very bad state. Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: the one who consumes riba will rise on the Day of Resurrection crazy and choking.”

According to a saheeh hadeeth (authentic report) narrated by al-Nasai from Abu’l-Yusr, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to pray: “Allahumma innee a’oodhu bika min al-taraddi wa’l-haram wa’l-gharaq wa’l-harq, wa a’oodhu bika an yatakhabatani al-shaytan ‘ind al-mawt (O Allah, I seek refuge with You from being thrown from a high place, old age, drowning and burning; and I seek refuge with You from being beaten by the Shaytan at the time of death).” Commenting on this hadeeth in Al-Fayd, al-Manawi said: “[The phrase] ‘and I seek refuge with You from being beaten by the Shaytan at the time of death’ means, lest he should wrestle with me and play with me, and damage my religious commitment or mental state (at the time of death) by means of his insinuating whispers which cause people to slip or lose their minds. The Shaytan could take control of a person when he is about to depart this world, and misguide him or stop him from repenting…”

Ibn Taymiyah said: “The fact that jinn can enter human bodies is proven by the consensus of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaah. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

‘Those who eat riba will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaytan leading him to insanity. That is because they say: ‘Trading is only like riba’…’ [2:275].

And in as-Saheeh it is narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ‘The Shaytan flows through the son of Adam as the blood flows through his veins.’”

‘Abd-Allah ibn al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: “I said to my father, ‘There are some people who say that the jinn do not enter the body of the epileptic.’ He said: ‘O my son, they are lying; the jinn could speak through this person.’” Commenting on this, Ibn Qudamah said: “What he said is well known, because a person may suffer an epileptic seizure and speak in a language that no one understands, and his body may be beaten with blows that would fell a camel, but the epileptic does not feel them at all, and he is also unaware of the words he is saying. The epileptic and others may be dragged about, or the carpet on which he is sitting may be pulled, and utensils may be moved about from place to place, and other things may happen. Anyone who witnesses such a thing will know for sure that the one who is speaking through the person and moving these things is not human.” And he said, may Allah have mercy on him: “There is no one among the imams (religious leaders/scholars) of the Muslims who denies that jinn may enter the body of the epileptic and others. Anyone who denies this and claims that Islam denies it is lying about Islam. There is nothing in the proofs of sharee’ah (Islamic law) to show that it does not happen.”

So the fact that jinn may enter human bodies is proven in the Quran and Sunnah, and by the consensus of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah, some of whose comments we have quoted above.

As regards the ayah (interpretation of the meaning): “but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s Leave” [2:102], this is undoubtedly a clear indication that the jinn cannot harm anyone through witchcraft or epilepsy or through any other kind of disturbance or misguidance, except with the permission of Allah. As al-Hasan al-Basri said: “Whomever Allah wills, He gives them power over him, and whomever He does not will, He does not give them power over him, and they cannot do anything to anyone except with the permission of Allah.” The Shaytan (who is the disbelieving jinn) may gain power over the believers by making them sin and by making them neglect the remembrance and Tawheed of Allah (maintaining Allah’s Oneness) and sincerity in worshipping Him. But he has no power over the righteous slaves of Allah, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, My slaves (i.e. the true believers of Islamic Monotheism) — you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.” [17:65]

During the Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic days of ignorance) the Arabs were well aware of this and mentioned it in their poetry. For example, the poet al-A’asha likened his she-camel’s energy to that of one who was touched by the jinn, and said that it was the jinn who was giving her energy.

As regards the causes of epilepsy, Ibn Taymiyah explained the causes. He said: “When the jinn touch a person with epilepsy, it may be because of desire or love, just as happens between one human and another… or it may – as is usually the case – be because of hatred and punishment, such as when a person has harmed them or they think that he has harmed them deliberately, either by urinating on them or pouring hot water on them or killing them, even if the person did that unknowingly. There are ignorant and wrongdoing ones among the jinn who may punish a person more than he deserves, or they may be playing with him and mistreating him, like foolish people among mankind.”

And I say: the way to save oneself from this is to remember Allah and speak His Name at the beginning of all things, as it was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to mention Allah in many cases, such as when eating, drinking, mounting his riding-beast, taking off his clothes for any reason, having intercourse and so on…

As regards treatment (of one whose body has been entered by the jinn), Ibn Taymiyah said (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 19/42): “When the jinn attack a person, they should be told of the rulings of Allah and His Messenger, proof should be established against them, and they should be commanded to do what is good and told not to do what is evil, just as should be done in the case of people, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning)’ [al-Israa’ 17:15].” Then he said: “If the jinn does not leave after being addressed in this manner, then it is permissible to rebuke him, tell him off, threaten him and curse him, as the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did with the Shaytaan when he came with a falling star to throw it in his face, and the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “I seek refuge with Allah from you and I curse you with the curse of Allah” – three times. (Narrated by al-Bukhaari).

We may also seek help against the jinn by remembering Allah (dhikr) and reciting Qur’an, especially Aayat al-Kursiy. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever recites it will remain under the protection of Allah and no Shaytaan (devil) will be able to approach him until the morning.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari). And al-Mi’wadhatayn (the last two soorahs of the Qur’an) may also be recited.

As for psychiatrists who do not treat the epileptic in the manner described, they cannot do him any good at all.

This issue may be discussed in much more detail, but what we have said here is sufficient for those who want to know a little about this matter, Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.

Masaa’il wa rasaa’il, Muhammad Mahmoud al-Najdi, p. 23

“Jahiliyyah” (Period of Ignorance) -- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to one of his Sahabah (companions): “You are a man in whom there is some Jahiliyyah.” And he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “There are four matters of Jahiliyyah in my ummah that they will not give up: pride in one’s forefathers, slandering lineages, seeking rain by the stars and wailing.”

The Journalist's Creed

I believe in the profession of journalism.
I believe that the public journal is a public trust; that all connected with it are, to the full measure of their responsibility, trustees for the public; that acceptance of a lesser service than the public service is betrayal of this trust.
I believe that clear thinking and clear statement, accuracy and fairness are fundamental to good journalism.
I believe that a journalist should write only what he holds in his heart to be true.
I believe that suppression of the news, for any consideration other than the welfare of society, is indefensible.
I believe that no one should write as a journalist what he would not say as a gentleman; that bribery by one’s own pocketbook is as much to be avoided as bribery by the pocketbook of another; that individual responsibility may not be escaped by pleading another’s instructions or another’s dividends.
I believe that advertising, news and editorial columns should alike serve the best interests of readers; that a single standard of helpful truth and cleanness should prevail for all; that the supreme test of good journalism is the measure of its public service.
I believe that the journalism which succeeds best — and best deserves success — fears God and honors Man; is stoutly independent, unmoved by pride of opinion or greed of power, constructive, tolerant but never careless, self-controlled, patient, always respectful of its readers but always unafraid, is quickly indignant at injustice; is unswayed by the appeal of privilege or the clamor of the mob; seeks to give every man a chance and, as far as law and honest wage and recognition of human brotherhood can make it so, an equal chance; is profoundly patriotic while sincerely promoting international good will and cementing world-comradeship; is a journalism of humanity, of and for today’s world.

The Journalist's Creed is a personal affirmation of journalism ethics written by Walter Williams in 1914. The creed has been published in more than 100 languages, and a bronze plaque of The Journalist's Creed hangs at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. Williams was the founding dean of the Missouri School of Journalism.

In 2013, 3.3 million cases of unintentional poisonings occurred.[3] This resulted in 98,000 deaths worldwide, down from 120,000 deaths in 1990.[4]

I live in Sabza Colony, Toli Chowki, Hyderabad. In my colony itself there're about -- approx. 20 dogs at least. Stray. Plus Pet dogs in some houses too. Stray dogs are aggressive. Toddlers around and all that. Maybe some stray dogs are rabid too.

Mumbai has over 12 million human residents, of whom over half are slum-dwellers.

India has the highest number of human rabies deaths in the world (estimated at 20,000 per annum)

Muzzle: a dangerous dog that should be muzzled

Quadrillion Dogs i.e. a number equal to 1 followed by 15 zeros. Year: 20?? Maths has always been my bugbear. Woof! Woof!

The global dog population is estimated at 900 million and rising.

A service dog is a type of assistance dog specifically trained to help people who have disabilities, such as visual impairment, hearing impairments, mental illnesses (such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), seizure disorder, mobility impairment, and diabetes. Desirable character traits in service animals typically include good temperament or psychological make-up (including biddability and trainability) and good health (including physical structure and stamina). Some service dogs are bred and trained by service dog organizations, while others are bred by breeders, and trained by private trainers or even the individuals with disabilities who will someday become their partners. Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retriever/Golden Retriever crossbred dogs, and German Shepherd Dogs are among the most common dog breeds working as service dogs today in the United States. Although dogs of almost any breed or mix of breeds may be capable of becoming a service dog, very few dogs have the requisite health and temperament qualities. Such a dog may be called a "service dog" or an "assistance dog", the terminology typically varying by country or region. The term "seeing eye dog" is frequently used as a generic label referring to any dog assisting individuals who are blind or with visual impairments.

The global dog population is estimated at 900 million and rising.[112][113] Although it is said that the "dog is man's best friend"[114] regarding 17–24% of dogs in developed countries, in the developing world they are feral, village or community dogs, with pet dogs uncommon.[104] These live their lives as scavengers and have never been owned by humans, with one study showing their most common response when approached by strangers was to run away (52%) or respond with aggression (11%).[115] We know little about these dogs, nor about the dogs that live in developed countries that are feral, stray or are in shelters, yet the great majority of modern research on dog cognition has focused on pet dogs living in human homes.[116]

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

This all-in-one guide targets the Internet navigator, the one who knows how to get around. Packed with advanced techniques for exploiting all the Internet tools, it also shows readers how to start and maintain their own on-line media service and integrate it with their network and E-mail systems. The accompanying disk features dozens of PC-based Internet tools along with an updated electronic listing of Internet sources.

The Internet Unleashed/Book and Disk Paperback – January, 1994 by Philip Baczewski (Author, Editor)

Hounds can be contrasted with gundogs, which assist hunters by identifying the location of prey and/or recovering shot quarry. The hound breeds were the first hunting dogs. They have either a powerful sense of smell or great speed.[1] There are three types of hound, with several breeds within each type: Sighthounds (also called gazehounds), which follow prey predominantly by speed, keeping it in sight. These dogs are fast and assist hunters in catching game—fox, hare, deer and elk. Scenthounds, which follow prey or others (like missing people) by tracking its scent. These dogs have endurance but are not fast runners. The remaining breeds of hound follow their prey using both sight and scent; difficult to classify as they are neither sighthound nor scent hound. List of hound breeds[edit] Afghan Hound Africanis American Foxhound American Leopard Hound Andalusian Hound Artois Hound Austrian Black and Tan Hound Azawakh Basenji Basset Artesien Normand Basset Bleu de Gascogne Basset Fauve de Bretagne Basset Griffon Vendéen (Grand) Basset Griffon Vendéen (Petit) Basset Hound Bavarian Mountain Hound Beagle Beagle-Harrier Black and Tan Coonhound Black and Tan Virginia Foxhound Blackmouth Cur Bloodhound Bluetick Coonhound Borzoi Bosnian Coarse-haired Hound Chippiparai Cirneco dell'Etna Combai Coonhound Cretan Hound Dachshund Deerhound Dumfriesshire Hound Estonian Hound English Foxhound Finnish Hound Foxhound Grand Bleu de Gascogne Greyhound Hamiltonstovare Harrier Ibizan Hound Italian Greyhound Irish Wolfhound Istrian Coarse-haired Hound Istrian Shorthaired Hound Jämthund Kanni Kelb tal-Fenek Lithuanian Hound Mudhol hound Norwegian Elkhound Otterhound Pharaoh Hound Piccolo Lepraiolo Italiano Plott Hound Polish Hound Portuguese Podengo Posavac Hound Rajapalayam (dog) Redbone Coonhound Rhodesian Ridgeback Sabueso Español Saluki Segugio Italiano a Pelo Forte Segugio Italiano a Pelo Raso Segugio Maremmano Serbian Hound Serbian Tricolour Hound Schweizer Laufhund Scottish Deerhound Silken Windhound Sloughi Taigan Thai Ridgeback Treeing Walker Coonhound Trigg Hound Transylvanian Hound Whippet

On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported also that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes.[24] The province of Irian Jaya or West Papua in the island of New Guinea is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.[25] The tribes are in danger because of the deforestation, especially in Brazil. Central African rainforest is home of the Mbuti pygmies, one of the hunter-gatherer peoples living in equatorial rainforests characterised by their short height (below one and a half metres, or 59 inches, on average). They were the subject of a study by Colin Turnbull, The Forest People, in 1962.[26] Pygmies who live in Southeast Asia are, amongst others, referred to as “Negrito”.

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in),[1] and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests. The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth's tropical rainforests. Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests.[2] It has been estimated that there may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth" and the "world's largest pharmacy", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there.[3] Rainforests are also responsible for 28% of the world's oxygen turnover, sometimes misnamed oxygen production,[4] processing it through photosynthesis from carbon dioxide and consuming it through respiration. The undergrowth in some areas of a rainforest can be restricted by poor penetration of sunlight to ground level. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned, the ground beneath is soon colonized by a dense, tangled growth of vines, shrubs and small trees, called a jungle. The term jungle is also sometimes applied to tropical rainforests generally.

A pygmy is a member of an ethnic group whose average height is unusually short; anthropologists define pygmy as a member of any group where adult men are on average less than 150 cm (4 feet 11 inches) tall.[1] A member of a slightly taller group is termed "pygmoid".[2] The term is most associated with peoples of Central Africa, such as the Aka, Efé and Mbuti.[3] If the term pygmy is defined as a group's men having an average height below 1.55 meters (5 feet 1 inch), then there are also pygmies in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Andaman Islands,[4] Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Bolivia, and Brazil,[5] including some Negritos of Southeast Asia.[citation needed]

The Dwarf (Hangul: 난장이가 쏘아 올린 작은 공; lit. "A Dwarf Launches a Little Ball") is Korean novel written by Cho Se-hui which was published in 1978.[1] According to Professor Bruce Fulton, it is the most important piece of Korean fiction since World War II.[2] The Dwarf was a best-seller in Korea and was also made into a feature film titled A Small Ball Shot by a Midget (1980) by director Lee Won-se.[3]

Bonsai (from the Japanese: 盆栽, "tray planting" About this sound pronunciation (help·info))[1] is an art form using trees grown in containers or pots that are deliberately manipulated to appear as miniature versions of full-size trees. This tradition originated in China but spread to other cultures in Asia as well. In the last century the art form has spread world wide based on the Japanese variation of this art. The purposes of bonsai are primarily contemplation (for the viewer) and the pleasant exercise of effort and ingenuity (for the grower).[2] By contrast with other plant cultivation practices, bonsai is not intended for production of food or for medicine. Instead, bonsai practice focuses on long-term cultivation and shaping of one or more small trees growing in a container. A bonsai is created beginning with a specimen of source material. This may be a cutting, seedling, or small tree of a species suitable for bonsai development. Bonsai can be created from nearly any perennial woody-stemmed tree or shrub species[3] that produces true branches and can be cultivated to remain small through pot confinement with crown and root pruning. Some species are popular as bonsai material because they have characteristics, such as small leaves or needles, that make them appropriate for the compact visual scope of bonsai. The source specimen is shaped to be relatively small and to meet the aesthetic standards of bonsai. When the candidate bonsai nears its planned final size it is planted in a display pot, usually one designed for bonsai display in one of a few accepted shapes and proportions. From that point forward, its growth is restricted by the pot environment. Throughout the year, the bonsai is shaped to limit growth, redistribute foliar vigor to areas requiring further development, and meet the artist's detailed design. The practice of bonsai is sometimes confused with dwarfing, but dwarfing generally refers to research, discovery, or creation of plant cultivars that are permanent, genetic miniatures of existing species. Bonsai does not require genetically dwarfed trees, but rather depends on growing small trees from regular stock and seeds. Bonsai uses cultivation techniques like pruning, root reduction, potting, defoliation, and grafting to produce small trees that mimic the shape and style of mature, full-size trees.

Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient. Exchanges and chains are a novel approach to expand the living donor pool. In February 2012, this novel approach to expand the living donor pool resulted in the largest chain in the world, involving 60 participants organized by the National Kidney Registry.[1] In 2014 the record for the largest chain was broken again by a swap involving 70 participants.[2

Kidney failure, also known as renal failure or renal insufficiency, is a medical condition of impaired kidney function in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter metabolic wastes from the blood.[1] The two main forms are acute kidney injury, which is often reversible with adequate treatment, and chronic kidney disease, which is often not reversible. In both cases, there is usually an underlying cause. Kidney failure is mainly determined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, which is the rate at which blood is filtered in the glomeruli of the kidney. The condition is detected by a decrease in or absence of urine production or determination of waste products (creatinine or urea) in the blood. Depending on the cause, hematuria (blood loss in the urine) and proteinuria (protein loss in the urine) may be noted. In kidney failure, there may be problems with increased fluid in the body (leading to swelling), increased acid levels, raised levels of potassium, decreased levels of calcium, increased levels of phosphate, and in later stages anemia. Bone health may also be affected. Long-term kidney problems are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

History of France by a Pro Russian -- Indian.

History of France by a Pro Russian -- Indian.

Hey, Excuse me: Madame la baronne.

Look. This isn't funny, ok. And, stop looking up these weird funny French words on Google. Got it, you Indian Expat or er drat Mister Expatriate with Er-This doen't-loo-Right Dubious papers! You aren't Mister Adolfo Kaminsky, ok? Go -- at least -- read his unofficial biography at a stretch -- Mister page boy -- Next time -- you fidgeting with our security and all -- and, snooping -- lurking -- or hovering around me --  on me into my Telly room, whatever -- I'd get real mad -- and might've you prosecuted -- persecuted or maybe executed. I'm not Mata Hari either. Stop reading those spy novels. No. French tea, coffee or cocktail juice. Just go. Ok. Weirdo.

Okay. I apologize . . . . Miss  Aztec goddess!

What's that, huh? What cordless phone? Thief. Put it back.

Nope. you're a high-school drop-out or something?

Nope. Why? You want me to work for you huh?

I don't know. But, strictly speaking -- basic certs and credentials. You don't have it, right. Dunno. Let me think about it. I usually don't circumvent Ministry of External Affairs you know protocols and all.

History. Read historians with serious and venomous bias and prejudices first.

Look Mister Miniature The Bodhi Tree Saint. Take a walk, ok?

Okay, put on your snickers then -- Ozone-friendly, ok.

This is France. This is not India. So behave yourself. I'm a public figure. And, you're real nobody. Got it?

Don't sulk. Don't boy. Mister Boy scout. Sissy. Want this skirt or is it too skimpy -- for you at least huh?

Blue, Miss?

Damn you.

Cross-dresser huh?

No. Fashion Telly channels surfer.


The way she L-O-Ls.

God. Not another petty crime. Pompous word -- crazy rhyme.

Franc or dime. Miss or Dame. Let's play Snakers and Ladders. Or Chess -- still your favorite game?

Hey. Mister Caricature.

Yep Miss Future Shock. Alwin Toeffler. Good writer eh?

LOL How did you find me huh? You don't know anybody except that Alexander?

Oh I thought he's from some Greek or Roman Mythology. French eh?

Nope. Honestly, I was looking for a Spanish song. Dunno. All of a sudden. Really impulsively. Then, you materialized in pixels. Low resolution CRT. Eve. Or Virtual Reality. Serendipity. BTW, Miss Tell me something how'd you let Colonel Sanders exploit your indigenous french small-scale industry For instance: French Fries in KFC?
Infrigment of Intelletual property. You don't sue giants and corporates -- you intimidated this Lilliputian Indian-Princely-State-Prince! The Crown Prince of In whose hand is the scroll of Indus Valley Civilization. Was that Alexander that cruel and unjust as well? But you don't know your own history -- How'd you justify moral anarchy -- cultural deviancy -- the massacre of everything French -- The only thing that makes the sun rise again and again on this horizon is the song you sing -- the homage you pay -- for those unsong -- Flag bearers of French revolution.

So you're blabbling -- dunno something -- La Isla Bonito. And, I looked it up Just-the-same-as-always -- and, it's interpretation of the meaning This is where I love to be -- and you looked -- you know a wee bit somewhat pretty and all -- Unapprecialy different or so than an average Iranian Princess or Persian la-di-da -- or Bedouin Evil Eye! And, I wasn't doing anything really serious -- so I replayed your this sound bytes and all -- and this computer got stuck -- so I cursed it real bad -- and, concurrently there's this eternal unsheduled power shutdown. So, I decided to go to shack and have tea and all. That's all. I don't even rememeber...vague sketchy hazy account -- anyways, bye. Okay. Some -- this telly anchor wants to meet him -- real desperate -- she's some queen and all -- so I'll see you around...have fun. Sing something sing-along type song you juke box one time song wonder -- oops I don't have change -- no coins no BMI check -- karaoke poster girl -- Go. Sit in a cosy corner of this room-temperated controlled semi e-Home -- and read Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky -- and how this Alexander turned into a deserter -- okay -- seize this serendipitious moment o goddess of france's destiny -- the real for mutiny -- seige huh -- wanna some custard dessert in the emirati desert corniche -- real yummy -- by the way -- the way you dance -- that's bombshell -- and bayonet charge -- you're my POW -- what powwow -- thumb impression on this yep instrument of surrender -- La Isla Bonito. Indian Tyrant with a French Princess in a dungeon. Who'd rescue you? Knight is here. Dark Horse is here. Shining Armor is here. You are here. I am here. So what are you waiting for -- La Isla . . . . Atrocities of...war crimes -- tribunal..Indian Field Marshal with you in-person to quell quench every rebellion...Nope no rats only Shrews and rodents. Get some sleep. G'Knight.

Your words give me the galloping feats
The razor sharp cutting edge to my words
The flare that ends the beginnings of battles and war
A blank shot -- and there you see is the General's pride buried
That crazy sharpnel -- oh did it really get the sniper dutch-couragish spunk
My subdued war cries -- and that stampede on the arch rivals swamps and fields
The glint of my sword -- like a bored blink of your eye
My horse nods its head as if telling me don't me me canter or gallop
These are tiny tots -- hide the whip -- don't even think about showing 'em the sheath

Frenzied Shamanic Trance Whirls of Celestial Novas and Solar Flares -- The shooting stars -- look at those meteors race
Is that elegance -- ain't that an imperfect word for such perfect prose -- verbose of saints -- clouds chasing winds -- and rainbows pass by
Drizzle or tornadoes -- the avalnches -- the Himalayan chuckles -- O lightning get real
Hide and seek -- no eclipse -- loony moony -- splash of dews on your face
That's the way -- she trots -- like a rook on a 64 piece board of pawn's fate-deciding dice
gambit -- snake charmer in snake pit
don't let this mongoose give you a fright
He ain't no pet -- he's came looking for a krait bride
My comrade in arms -- grude-ingly tags along
So Miss Siesmograph -- where did you learn that celestial dance --
The scroll -- that reads the death sentence of naives
The shame of lowered flags
The taunts of mock executions
The vieled riducle so you thought you're the king emperoro king

You're Sky Writing
Every gesture -- is a blue cluoudy clusters
Scribble my fate
Be my sunshine
Stomping diligently with grace
The planets of outer space
The very fact that you have such prerogatives
But stil belitting planets -- your whims and fancies
why hobnob -- aint that sin divine
it's your voice -- those naive yet sinister eyes
i don't know what liberetto is -- prison of of my own seashell
Those pearls -- words of Buddha -- now you're the bodhi tree
My last wish is o princess -- grant me a boon
are you real -- thought nobody lives on the moon
take me with you -- i'll pick something for you
a seashell -- a home.